Worldwide Incidence of Suicides in Prison

Prison services worldwide, and particularly in Europe, should prioritise suicide prevention. Assessment and management of suicide risk in female individuals living in prison need particular attention due to excess mortality relative to community-based populations.

source: The Lancet

Summary

A Systematic Review With Meta-Regression Analyses

[Posted 3/Jun/2024]

AUDIENCE: Psychiatry, Ob/gyn

KEY FINDINGS: Prison services worldwide, and particularly in Europe, should prioritise suicide prevention. Assessment and management of suicide risk in female individuals living in prison need particular attention due to excess mortality relative to community-based populations. Interpretation of synthesised data needs to be done with caution due to high heterogeneity between jurisdictions.

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death during imprisonment. This systematic review aimed to synthesise available evidence of prison suicide incidence worldwide.

DETAILS: Authors systematically searched the scientific literature, data repositories, and prison system reports, supplemented by correspondence with prison administrations. Authors included reports on people living in prison but excluded studies in preselected groups (by age or offence type). Absolute numbers and incidence rates of suicide mortality per 100,000 person-years by sex and country were extracted from 2000 to 2021. IQRs were used to describe the suicide incidence in different world regions. Incidence rate ratios comparing suicides of people living in prison with age-standardised general populations were calculated. Authors conducted meta-regression analyses on national-level and prison-level factors to examine heterogeneity. Authors included three scientific studies, 124 official reports, and 11 datasets from email correspondence. Between 2000 and 2021, there were 29,711 reported suicides during 91.2 million person-years of imprisonment in 82 jurisdictions worldwide (sex-specific data available for 13,289 individuals: 12,544 [94.4%] male and 745 [5.6%] female individuals). There were large variations between countries, with most studies reporting suicide rates in the range of 24-89 per 100,000 person-years in both sexes (22-86 in male individuals and 25-107 in female individuals). In meta-regression analyses, Europe (vs other regions), high-income countries (vs low-income and middle-income countries), and countries with lower incarceration rates (vs those with higher incarceration rates) had higher suicide rates. Incidence rate ratios between people who are incarcerated and age-standardised general populations in the same jurisdictions were typically in the range of 1.9-6.0 in male and 10.4-32.4 in female individuals.

Our Most Popular Resources

Copyright © Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Source: Mundt, A. P., Cifuentes-Gramajo, P. A., Baranyi, G. et al. (2024). Worldwide Incidence of Suicides in Prison: A Systematic Review With Meta-Regression Analyses. The Lancet. 2024; Published: May 29, 2024. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(24)00134-2.



GPi-DBS-Induced Brain Metabolic Activation in Cervical Dystonia

GPi-DBS increases metabolic activity at the stimulation site and sensorimotor network. The clinical benefit and adverse effects are mediated by modulation of specific networks.

source: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

Summary

[Posted 1/Apr/2024]

AUDIENCE: Neurology, Internal Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: GPi-DBS increases metabolic activity at the stimulation site and sensorimotor network. The clinical benefit and adverse effects are mediated by modulation of specific networks.

BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) is a highly efficacious treatment for cervical dystonia, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Here, we investigate the brain metabolic effects of GPi-DBS in cervical dystonia.

DETAILS: Eleven patients with GPi-DBS underwent brain 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging during stimulation on and off. Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism were investigated at the active contact location and across the whole brain. Changes in motor symptom severity were quantified using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS), executive function using trail making test (TMT) and parkinsonism using Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The mean (SD) best therapeutic response to DBS during the treatment was 81 (22)%. The TWSTRS score was 3.2 (3.9) points lower DBS on compared with off (p=0.02). At the stimulation site, stimulation was associated with increased metabolism, which correlated with DBS stimulation amplitude (r=0.70, p=0.03) but not with changes in motor symptom severity (p>0.9). In the whole brain analysis, stimulation increased metabolism in the GPi, subthalamic nucleus, putamen, primary sensorimotor cortex (PFDR0.05). Acute improvement in TWSTRS correlated with metabolic activation in the sensorimotor cortex and overall treatment response in the supplementary motor area. Worsening of TMT-B score was associated with activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and parkinsonism with activation in the putamen.

Our Most Popular Resources

Copyright © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. All rights reserved.

Source: Honkanen E. A., Rönkä J., Pekkonen E., et al. (2024). GPi-DBS-Induced Brain Metabolic Activation in Cervical Dystonia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2024; 95(4): 300-308. Published: April, 2024. DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2023-331668.



Exploring the Interrelationships Between Physical Function, Functional Exercise Capacity, and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Persons Living with HIV

While physical activity can mitigate the metabolic effects of HIV disease and HIV medications, many HIV-infected persons report low levels of physical activity.

source: Clinical Nursing Research

Summary

[Posted 12/Mar/2024]

AUDIENCE: Nursing

KEY FINDINGS: Making Time for Exercise Self-efficacy was more significant than Resisting Relapse for both physical function and functional exercise capacity. Interventions to promote achievement of physical activity need to use multiple measurement strategies.

BACKGROUND: Objective of this study is to determine if there were differences between the subjective and objective assessments of physical activity while controlling for sociodemographic, anthropometric, and clinical characteristics. A total of 810 participants across eight sites located in three countries. Both univariate and multivariant analyses were used.

DETAILS: Subjective instruments were the two subscales of Self-efficacy for Exercise Behaviors Scale: Making Time for Exercise and Resisting Relapse and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, which measured physical function. The objective measure of functional exercise capacity was the 6-minute Walk. Physical function was significantly associated with Making Time for Exercise (β = 1.76, p = .039) but not with Resisting Relapse (β = 1.16, p = .168). Age (β = -1.88, p = .001), being employed (β = 16.19, p < .001) and race (βs = 13.84–31.98, p < .001), hip–waist ratio (β = -2.18, p < .001), and comorbidities (β = 7.31, p < .001) were significant predictors of physical functioning. The model predicting physical function accounted for a large amount of variance (adjusted R2 = .938). The patterns of results predicting functional exercise capacity were similar. Making Time for Exercise self-efficacy scores significantly predicted functional exercise capacity (β = 0.14, p = .029), and Resisting Relapse scores again did not (β = -0.10, p = .120). Among the covariates, age (β = -0.16, p < .001), gender (β = -0.43, p < .001), education (β = 0.08, p = .026), and hip–waist ratio (β = 0.09, p = .034) were significant. This model did not account for much of the overall variance in the data (adjusted R2 = .081). We found a modest significant relationship between physical function and functional exercise capacity (r = 0.27).

Our Most Popular Resources

Copyright © SAGE Publications. All rights reserved.

Source: Nokes, K. M., Sokhela, D. G., Orton, P, M., et al. (2024). Exploring the Interrelationships Between Physical Function, Functional Exercise Capacity, and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Persons Living with HIV. XXXXXXXX. 2024; 33(2-3): 165-175. Published: March, 2024. DOI: 10.1177/10547738241231626.



Enhancing Functional Recovery Following Postpartum Femoral Neuropathy

The case report describes how an early multimodal rehabilitation program within a multidisciplinary framework allows for sooner neuromotor function improvement and activities of daily living independence.

source: Intl J Gynecol Obstet.

Summary

Early Neurorehabilitation and Multidisciplinary Obstetric Care

[Posted 5/Mar/2024]

AUDIENCE: Ob/Gyn, Neurology

KEY FINDINGS: The case report describes how an early multimodal rehabilitation program within a multidisciplinary framework allows for sooner neuromotor function improvement and activities of daily living independence.

BACKGROUND: Postpartum femoral neuropathy has a reported incidence of less than 1% and its total recovery time extends up to 6 months to a year. A multidisciplinary approach is vital to rule out permanent disability and to assure a correct diagnosis and earlier rehabilitation.

DETAILS: Authors report a case of a 37-year-old puerperal woman with a history of intrapartum epidural analgesia, who presented post-labor unilateral lower-limb motor weakness and sensory loss, with functional compromise on independent gait. A multidisciplinary team consisting of an anesthesiologist, a physiatrist, a neurologist, and an obstetrician was then established. In the initial physiatry and neurology assessment, the patient reported pain (numerical rating scale 7/10) over the inguinal ligament, lower limb hypoesthesia, and muscle weakness. Femoral neuropathy was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging ruled out potential complications related to the anesthetic procedure. The patient was then enrolled in a supervised rehabilitation program and, 3 weeks later, electrodiagnostic studies confirmed the initial suspicion. Two months later, the patient had regained lower-limb active range of motion and no pain nor paresthesia was reported.

Our Most Popular Resources

Copyright © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

Source: Goncalves, E. M., Lanzaro, C., Silva, L. C., et al. (2024). Enhancing Functional Recovery Following Postpartum Femoral Neuropathy: Early Neurorehabilitation and Multidisciplinary Obstetric Care. Intl J Gynecol Obstet.. 2024; 164(3): 830-834. Published: March, 2024. DOI: 10.1002/ijgo.15025.



Converging Evidence for Frontopolar Cortex as a Target for Neuromodulation in Addiction Treatment

The review highlights the importance of targeting the frontopolar area and tailoring the treatment according to interindividual variations in brain state and trait and electric field distribution patterns. This converging evidence supports the potential for treatment optimization through context, target, dose, and timing dimensions to improve clinical outcomes of transcranial brain stimulation in people with substance use disorders in future clinical trials.

source: Am J Psychiatry

Summary

[Posted 22/Feb/2024]

AUDIENCE: Psychiatry, Neurology

KEY FINDINGS: This review highlights the importance of targeting the frontopolar area and tailoring the treatment according to interindividual variations in brain state and trait and electric field distribution patterns. This converging evidence supports the potential for treatment optimization through context, target, dose, and timing dimensions to improve clinical outcomes of transcranial brain stimulation in people with substance use disorders in future clinical trials.

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive brain stimulation technologies such as transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulation (tES and TMS) are emerging neuromodulation therapies that are being used to target the neural substrates of substance use disorders.

DETAILS: By the end of 2022, 205 trials of tES or TMS in the treatment of substance use disorders had been published, with heterogeneous results, and there is still no consensus on the optimal target brain region. Recent work may help clarify where and how to apply stimulation, owing to expanding databases of neuroimaging studies, new systematic reviews, and improved methods for causal brain mapping. Whereas most previous clinical trials targeted the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, accumulating data highlight the frontopolar cortex as a promising therapeutic target for transcranial brain stimulation in substance use disorders. This approach is supported by converging multimodal evidence, including lesion-based maps, functional MRI-based maps, tES studies, TMS studies, and dose-response relationships.

Our Most Popular Resources

Copyright © American Psychiatric Association. All rights reserved.

Source: Soleimani, G., Joutsa, J., Moussawi, K., et al. (2024). Converging Evidence for Frontopolar Cortex as a Target for Neuromodulation in Addiction Treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2024; 181(2): 100-114. Published: February, 2024. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.20221022.



Recent Secular Trends of Body Mass Index in Individuals With Bipolar Disorders and in the General Population

Adults with bipolar disorders had a higher BMI and a higher prevalence of obesity than the general population, indicating a higher cardiometabolic risk. Annually, BMI increased more in the group with bipolar disorders than in the general population, particularly among women and among those with high BMI.

source: Am J Psychiatry

Summary

[Posted 19/Jan/2024]

AUDIENCE: Psychiatry, Family Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: Adults with bipolar disorders had a higher BMI and a higher prevalence of obesity than the general population, indicating a higher cardiometabolic risk. Annually, BMI increased more in the group with bipolar disorders than in the general population, particularly among women and among those with high BMI.

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to investigate secular trends and distribution of body mass index (BMI) among individuals with bipolar disorders and the general population between 2008 and 2019.

DETAILS: Data were from the Swedish National Quality Register for Bipolar Disorder, where 24,423 adults with bipolar disorders were identified, and from the national Swedish Living Conditions Surveys, where 77,485 adults from the general population were identified. Quantile regression was used to compare the 15th, 50th, and 85th percentiles of BMI across age and study years. The study sample included 22,127 individuals with bipolar disorders (mean age, 48 years; 63% women) and 71,894 individuals from the general population (mean age, 52 years; 51% women). BMI percentiles were higher among individuals with bipolar disorders. At the 50th percentile, the BMI group differences were 1.1 (95% CI=0.8-1.14) for men and 1.8 (95% CI=1.5-2.1) for women. The gap was widest at the 85th BMI percentile: men, 2.3 (95% CI=1.8-2.8); women, 4.1 (95% CI=3.7-4.6). BMI increased over time in both study groups, but more in the group with bipolar disorders. The changes per decade in mean BMI were 0.4 (95% CI=0.3-0.5) among men in the general population, 1.1 (95% CI=0.7-1.4) among men with bipolar disorders, 0.6 (95% CI=0.5-0.7) among women in the general population, and 1.4 (95% CI=1.1-1.7) among women with bipolar disorders. Women with bipolar disorders had the highest prevalence and the greatest rate of increase of obesity. In 2019, the obesity prevalence was 33% among women and 29% among men with bipolar disorders, compared with 13% and 15%, respectively, among women and men in the general population.

Our Most Popular Resources

Copyright © American Psychiatric Association. All rights reserved.

Source: Najar, H., Joas, E., Jonsson, V., et al. (2024). Recent Secular Trends of Body Mass Index in Individuals With Bipolar Disorders and in the General Population. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2024; 181(1): 390-46. Published: January, 2024. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.20230012.



Specialty: 

Breaking Medical News Cardiology Dermatology Emergency Medicine Endocrinology Family Medicine Gastroenterology General Interests General Surgery Hematology/Oncology Infectious Disease Internal Medicine Nephrology Neurology Nursing Ob/Gyn Ophthalmology Pediatrics Pharmacy Psychiatry