Longitudinal Trajectory of the Link Between Ventral Striatum and Depression in Adolescence

The connectivity strength of the VS within the reward network showed distinct patterns of association with depressive disorders and anhedonia from mid to late adolescence, suggesting that the role of this circuitry in depression changes with age.

source: Am J Psychiatry

Summary

[Posted 25/Jul/2022]

AUDIENCE: Psychiatry, Pediatric, Family Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: The connectivity strength of the VS within the reward network showed distinct patterns of association with depressive disorders and anhedonia from mid to late adolescence, suggesting that the role of this circuitry in depression changes with age. This study replicates, in an independent sample, the association between the VS and depression previously reported in younger adolescents. The findings suggest a role of VS connectivityrw in anhedonia but not in low mood.

BACKGROUND: Research in adolescent depression has found aberrant intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) among the ventral striatum (VS) and several brain regions implicated in reward processing. The present study probes this question by taking advantage of the availability of data from a large youth cohort, the IMAGEN Consortium.

DETAILS: iFC data from 303 adolescents (48% of them female) were used to examine associations of VS connectivity at baseline (at age 14) with depressive disorders at baseline and at 2-year (N=250) and 4-year (N=219) follow-ups. Eleven regions of interest, key nodes of the reward system, were used to probe the reward network and calculate the connectivity strength of the VS within this network (VS connectivityrw). The main analyses assessed associations of VS connectivityrw with depressive disorders, anhedonia, and low mood using logistic regression. Autoregressive models accounting for carryover effects over time were conducted to further evaluate these brain-behavior associations. Higher right VS connectivityrw was associated with higher probability of depressive disorders at baseline (odds ratio=2.65, 95% CI=1.40, 5.05). This finding was confirmed in the autoregressive model, adjusting for carryover effects of the depressive disorders across the three time points. VS connectivityrw was not predictive of depressive disorders at follow-up assessments. Longitudinal associations between VS connectivityrw and anhedonia emerged in the structural equation model: left VS connectivityrw was associated with anhedonia at 2 years (odds ratio=2.20, 95% CI=1.54, 3.14), and right VS connectivityrw was linked to anhedonia at 4 years (odds ratio=1.87, 95% CI=1.09, 3.21). VS connectivityrw did not predict low mood at any time point in the structural equation model.

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Source: Pan, P. M., Sato, J. R., Martinot, M. P.,, et al. (2022). Longitudinal Trajectory of the Link Between Ventral Striatum and Depression in Adolescence. Am J Psychiatry. 2022; 179(7): 470-481. Published: July, 2022. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.20081180.



Cerebellar Atrophy and Its Implications On Gait In Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

Patients with CAA show more subcortical cerebellar atrophy than HC or patients with AD and more cortical cerebellar atrophy than HCs.

source: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

Summary

[Posted 19/Jul/2022]

AUDIENCE: Neurology, Psychiatry, Internal Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: Patients with CAA show more subcortical cerebellar atrophy than HC or patients with AD and more cortical cerebellar atrophy than HCs. Reduced pCbll-ScV correlated with lower gait velocity in regression models including other relevant variables. Overall, this study suggests that CAA causes cerebellar injury, which might contribute to gait disturbance.

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) causes haemorrhagic lesions in cerebellar cortex as well as subcortical cerebral atrophy. However, the potential effect of CAA on cerebellar tissue loss and its clinical implications have not been investigated.

DETAILS: The study included 70 non-demented patients with probable CAA, 70 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and 70 age-matched patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cerebellum was segmented into percent of cerebellar subcortical volume (pCbll-ScV) and percent of cerebellar cortical volume (pCbll-CV) represented as percent (p) of estimated total intracranial volume. We compared pCbll-ScV and pCbll-CV between patients with CAA, HCs and those with AD. Gait velocity (metres/second) was used to investigate gait function in patients with CAA. Patients with CAA had significantly lower pCbll-ScV compared with both HC (1.49±0.1 vs 1.73±0.2, p<0.001) and AD (1.49±0.1 vs 1.66 ± 0.24, p<0.001) and lower pCbll-CV compared with HCs (6.03±0.5 vs 6.23±0.6, p=0.028). Diagnosis of CAA was independently associated with lower pCbll-ScV compared with HCs (p<0.001) and patients with AD (p<0.001) in separate linear regression models adjusted for age, sex and presence of hypertension. Lower pCbll-ScV was independently associated with worse gait velocity (ß=0.736, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.19, p=0.002) in a stepwise linear regression analysis including pCbll-CV along with other relevant variables.

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Source: Horn, M. J., Gokcal, E., Becker, A. J., et al. (2022). Cerebellar Atrophy and Its Implications On Gait In Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2022; 93(8): 802-807. Published: August, 2022. DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2021-328553.



Neurobiological Correlates of Change in Adaptive Behavior in Autism

The findings suggest that patients who die by suicide by violent means their behavioral outcome may be less dependent on genetic risk for conventional psychiatric disorders.

source: Am J Psychiatry

Summary

[Posted 24/May/2022]

AUDIENCE: Psychiatry, Neurology, Family Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: This study demonstrates, for the first time, that variation in clinical (adaptive) outcome is associated with both group- and individual-level variation in anatomy of brain regions enriched for genes relevant to ASD. This may facilitate the move toward better targeted/precision medicine approaches.

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental condition that is associated with significant difficulties in adaptive behavior and variation in clinical outcomes across the life span. Some individuals with ASD improve, whereas others may not change significantly, or regress. Hence, the development of "personalized medicine" approaches is essential. However, this requires an understanding of the biological processes underpinning differences in clinical outcome, at both the individual and subgroup levels, across the lifespan.

DETAILS: The authors conducted a longitudinal follow-up study of 483 individuals (204 with ASD and 279 neurotypical individuals, ages 6-30 years), with assessment time points separated by ~12-24 months. Data collected included behavioral data (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II), neuroanatomical data (structural MRI), and genetic data (DNA). Individuals with ASD were grouped into clinically meaningful "increasers," "no-changers," and "decreasers" in adaptive behavior. First, the authors compared neuroanatomy between outcome groups. Next, they examined whether deviations from the neurotypical neuroanatomical profile were associated with outcome at the individual level. Finally, they explored the observed neuroanatomical differences’ potential genetic underpinnings. Outcome groups differed in neuroanatomical features (cortical volume and thickness, surface area), including in "social brain" regions previously implicated in ASD. Also, deviations of neuroanatomical features from the neurotypical profile predicted outcome at the individual level. Moreover, neuroanatomical differences were associated with genetic processes relevant to neuroanatomical phenotypes (e.g., synaptic development).

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Source: Pretzsch, C. M., Schafer, T., Lombardo, M. V., et al. (2022). Neurobiological Correlates of Change in Adaptive Behavior in Autism. Am J Psychiatry. 2022; 179(5): 336-349. Published: May, 2022. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.21070711.



Association of Traumatic Brain Injury With the Risk of Developing Chronic Cardiovascular, Endocrine, Neurological, and Psychiatric Disorders

Findings suggest that patients with TBI in all age groups may benefit from a proactive targeted screening program for chronic multisystem diseases, particularly cardiometabolic diseases, after injury.

source: JAMA Netw Open

Summary

[Posted 2/May/2022]

AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: These findings suggest that TBI of any severity was associated with a higher risk of chronic cardiovascular, endocrine, and neurological comorbidities in patients without baseline diagnoses. Medical comorbidities were observed in relatively young patients with TBI. Comorbidities occurring after TBI were associated with higher mortality. These findings suggest the need for a targeted screening program for multisystem diseases after TBI, particularly chronic cardiometabolic diseases.

BACKGROUND: Aim of the study is to assess the incidence of cardiovascular, endocrine, neurological, and psychiatric comorbidities in patients with mild TBI (mTBI) or moderate to severe TBI (msTBI) and analyze associations between post-TBI comorbidities and mortality. Increased risk of neurological and psychiatric conditions after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is well-defined. However, cardiovascular and endocrine comorbidity risk after TBI in individuals without these comorbidities and associations with post-TBI mortality have received little attention.

DETAILS: This prospective longitudinal cohort study used hospital-based patient registry data from a tertiary academic medical center to select patients without any prior clinical comorbidities who experienced TBI from 2000 to 2015. Using the same data registry, individuals without head injuries, the unexposed group, and without target comorbidities were selected and age-, sex-, and race-frequency-matched to TBI subgroups. Patients were followed-up for up to 10 years. Data were analyzed in 2021. Cardiovascular, endocrine, neurologic, and psychiatric conditions were defined based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Associations between TBI and comorbidities, as well as associations between the comorbidities and mortality, were analyzed. A total of 4351 patients with mTBI (median [IQR] age, 45 [29-57] years), 4351 patients with msTBI (median [IQR] age, 47 [30-58] years), and 4351 unexposed individuals (median [IQR] age, 46 [30-58] years) were included in analyses. In each group, 45% of participants were women. mTBI and msTBI were significantly associated with higher risks of cardiovascular, endocrine, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders compared with unexposed individuals. In particular, hypertension risk was increased in both mTBI (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.1-2.9) and msTBI (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 2.0-2.9) groups. Diabetes risk was increased in both mTBI (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7) and msTBI (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6) groups, and risk of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack was also increased in mTBI (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3) and msTBI (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.4-5.3) groups. All comorbidities in the TBI subgroups emerged within a median (IQR) of 3.49 (1.76-5.96) years after injury. Risks for post-TBI comorbidities were also higher in patients aged 18 to 40 years compared with age-matched unexposed individuals: hypertension risk was increased in the mTBI (HR, 5.9; 95% CI, 3.9-9.1) and msTBI (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.5-6.1) groups, while hyperlipidemia (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.4) and diabetes (HR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.1-9.9) were increased in the mTBI group. Individuals with msTBI, compared with unexposed patients, had higher risk of mortality (432 deaths [9.9%] vs 250 deaths [5.7%]; P < .001); postinjury hypertension (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7), coronary artery disease (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.0), and adrenal insufficiency (HR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.8-13.0) were also associated with higher mortality.

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Source: Izzy, S., Chen, P. M., Tahir, Z., et al. (2022). Association of Traumatic Brain Injury With the Risk of Developing Chronic Cardiovascular, Endocrine, Neurological, and Psychiatric Disorders. JAMA Netw Open. 2022; 5(4): e229478. Published: April 1, 2022. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.9478.



Association of Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder with Suicide Mortality

The findings suggest that patients who die by suicide by violent means their behavioral outcome may be less dependent on genetic risk for conventional psychiatric disorders.

source: Am J Psychiatry

Summary

[Posted 19/Apr/2022]

AUDIENCE: Psychiatry, Family Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: Treatment with MOUD was associated with a substantial reduction in suicide mortality as well external causes of mortality and all-cause mortality.

BACKGROUND: Understanding the effectiveness of medication treatment for opioid use disorder to decrease the risk of suicide mortality may inform clinical and policy decisions. The authors sought to describe the effect of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) on risk of suicide mortality.

DETAILS: This was a retrospective cohort study in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients from 2003 to 2017. The authors linked three data sources: the VA Corporate Data Warehouse, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Claims Data, and the VA–Department of Defense Mortality Data Repository. The exposure of interest was MOUD, including starting periods (first 14 days on treatment), stopping periods (first 14 days off treatment), stable time on treatment, and stable time off treatment (reference category). The main outcome measures included suicide mortality, external-cause mortality, and all-cause mortality in the 5 years following initiation of MOUD. Over 60,000 VA patients received MOUD. Patients were typically male (92.8%) and their mean age was 46.5 years (SD=13.1). After adjusting for demographic characteristics, mental health and physical health conditions, and health care utilization, the adjusted hazard ratio during stable MOUD was 0.45 (95% CI=0.32, 0.63) for suicide mortality, 0.35 (95% CI=0.31, 0.40) for external-cause mortality, and 0.34 (95% CI=0.31, 0.37) for all-cause mortality. MOUD starting periods were associated with an adjusted hazard ratio for suicide mortality of 0.55 (95% CI=0.25, 1.21), and MOUD stopping periods were associated with an adjusted hazard ratio for suicide mortality of 1.38 (95% CI=0.82, 2.34).

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Source: Watts, B. V., Gottlieb, D. J., Riblet, N. B., et al. (2022). Association of Medication Treatment For Opioid Use Disorder With Suicide Mortality. Am J Psychiatry. Published: April 1, 2022. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2021.21070700.



Long-term Neuropsychiatric Symptoms In Spontaneous Intracerebral Haemorrhage Survivors

NP symptoms were present in more than half of 6-month ICH survivors, with higher prevalence and severity in patients with post-ICH dementia.

source: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

Summary

[Posted 21/Mar/2022]

AUDIENCE: Neurology, Internal Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: NP symptoms were present in more than half of 6-month ICH survivors, with higher prevalence and severity in patients with post-ICH dementia. Distinctive NP profile might be associated to cognitive status and inform on long-term dementia risk.

BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric (NP) symptoms are prominent features of cognitive decline, but they have been understudied in patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). In ICH survivors, authors aimed at assessing NP symptoms prevalence and profiles, and their influence on long-term outcomes.

DETAILS: Data was analysed from consecutive 6-month ICH survivors enrolled in the Prognosis of Intracerebral Haemorrhage study. NP evaluation was performed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. Patients underwent long-term clinical follow-up after ICH (median follow-up time 7.2 years, IQR 4.8–8.2). Out of 560 patients with ICH, 265 survived at 6 months. NP evaluation 6 months after ICH was feasible in 202 patients. NP symptoms were present in 112 patients (55%), and in 36 out of 48 patients (75%) with post-ICH dementia. Affective symptoms were present in 77 patients (38%), followed by vegetative symptoms (52 patients, 26%) and hyperactivity (47 patients, 23%). Apathy and hyperactivity were associated with post-ICH dementia and cerebral amyloid angiopathy MRI profile (all p<0.05). Apathy and hyperactivity prevailing over affective symptoms at 6-month follow-up were associated with higher risks of developing new-onset dementia (HR 5.40; 95% CI 2.27 to 12.84), while presence or severity of NP symptoms were not.

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Source: Scopelliti, G., Casolla, B., Boulouis, G., et al. (2022). Long-term Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Spontaneous Intracerebral Haemorrhage Survivors. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry . 2022; 93(3): 232-237. Published: March, 2022. DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2021-327557.



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