AUDIENCE: Pediatric, Neurology, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: During TH, cerebral glucose concentration is partly dependent on blood glucose concentration. Further studies to understand brain glucose use and optimal glucose concentrations during hypothermic neuroprotection are needed.
BACKGROUND: Objective of this study is to determine cerebral glucose concentration and its relationship with glucose infusion rate (GIR) and blood glucose concentration in neonatal encephalopathy during therapeutic hypothermia (TH).
DETAILS: This was an observational study in which cerebral glucose during TH was quantified by magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and compared with mean blood glucose at the time of scan. Clinical data (gestational age, birth weight, GIR, sedative use) that could affect glucose use were collected. The severity and pattern of brain injury on MR imaging were scored by a neuroradiologist. Student t test, Pearson correlation, repeated measures ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were performed. Three-hundred-sixty blood glucose values and 402 MR spectra from 54 infants (30 female infants; mean gestational age 38.6 ± 1.9 weeks) were analyzed. In total, 41 infants had normal-mild and 13 had moderate-severe injury. Median GIR and blood glucose during TH were 6.0 mg/kg/min (IQR 5-7) and 90 mg/dL (IQR 80-102), respectively. GIR did not correlate with blood or cerebral glucose. Cerebral glucose was significantly greater during than after TH (65.9 ± 22.9 vs 60.0 ± 25.2 mg/dL, P < .01), and there was a significant correlation between blood glucose and cerebral glucose during TH (basal ganglia: r = 0.42, thalamus: r = 0.42, cortical gray matter: r = 0.39, white matter: r = 0.39, all P < .01). There was no significant difference in cerebral glucose concentration in relation to injury severity or pattern.
Copyright © Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Source: Tetarbe, M., Wisnowski, J. L., Geyer, E., et al. (2023). Cerebral Glucose Concentration in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy during Therapeutic Hypothermia. J Pediatr.. Published: October, 2023. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2023.113560.
Definition of Syndrome-Specific Reference Ranges.
AUDIENCE: Endocrinology, Pediatric, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: By longitudinally assessing TFT in a wide pediatric DS population, we outlined the syndrome-specific reference nomograms for TSH, FT3, and FT4 and demonstrated a persistent upward shift of TSH compared to non-syndromic children.
BACKGROUND: The lack of syndrome-specific reference ranges for thyroid function tests (TFT) among pediatric patients with Down syndrome (DS) results in an overestimation of the occurrence of hypothyroidism in this population. Aim of this study is to (a) outline the age-dependent distribution of TFT among pediatric patients with DS; (b) describe the intraindividual variability of TFT over time; and (c) assess the role of elevated thyrotropin (TSH) in predicting the future onset of overt hypothyroidism.
DETAILS: In this retrospective, monocentric, observational analysis, authors included 548 patients with DS (0-18 years) longitudinally assessed between 1992 and 2022. Exclusion criteria were abnormal thyroid anatomy, treatments affecting TFT, and positive thyroid autoantibodies. Authors determined the age-dependent distribution of TSH, FT3, and FT4 and outlined the relative nomograms for children with DS. Compared with non-syndromic patients, median TSH levels were statistically greater at any age (P < .001). Median FT3 and FT4 levels were statistically lower than controls (P < .001) only in specific age classes (0-11 for FT3, 11-18 years for FT4). TSH levels showed a remarkable fluctuation over time, with a poor (23%-53%) agreement between the TSH centile classes at 2 sequential assessments. Finally, the 75th centile was the threshold above which TSH values predicted future evolution into overt hypothyroidism with the best statistical accuracy, with a satisfactory negative predictive value (0.91), but poor positive predictive value (0.15).
Copyright © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society. All rights reserved.
Source: Cattoni, A., Molinari, S., Capitoli, G., et al. (2023). Thyroid Function Tests in Children and Adolescents With Trisomy 21: Definition of Syndrome-Specific Reference Ranges. JCEM. 2023; 108(11): 2779-2788. Published: November, 2023. DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgad333.
Analysis of the Radiotherapy Strategies of the CWS-96 and CWS-2002P Studies and SoTiSaR Registry.
AUDIENCE: Oncology, Pediatric
KEY FINDINGS: RT can be omitted in patients with IRS I eRMS. RT improves LCS and EFS in IRS II and III. RT improves OS in patients with HN-PM, with proton RT comparable with photon RT. Doses of 32 Gy (HART) or 36 and 41.4 Gy (CFRT) had comparable efficacy in patients with favorable risk profiles and 44.8 Gy (HART) or 50.4 and 55.8 Gy (CFRT) in the unfavorable groups.
BACKGROUND: Objective of this study is to analyze and compare the indications, doses, and application methods of radiotherapy (RT) and their influence on prognosis of patients with localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the local control modalities in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) but is associated with severe acute and late toxicities. Authors have analyzed and compared the indications, doses, and application methods of RT and their influence on prognosis for patients with localized RMS.
DETAILS: One thousand four hundred seventy patients with localized RMS 21 years and younger entered on CWS-96, CWS-2002P, and SoTiSaR were eligible for the analysis. The median follow-up was 6.5 years (IQR, 3.3-9.5). The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and local control survival (LCS) for 910 (62%) irradiated versus nonirradiated patients were 71% versus 69% and 78% versus 73% (P = .03), respectively. Ninety-five percent of patients in IRS I (90% embryonal RMS [eRMS]) were nonirradiated (EFS, 87%). Irradiated patients with IRS II had improved LCS (91% v 80%; P = .01) and EFS (not significant). In IRS III, EFS and LCS were significantly better for RT patients: 71% versus 56% (P = 3.1e-06) and 76% versus 61% (P = 4.1e-07). Patients with tumors in the head and neck region (orbita, parameningeal, and nonparameningeal) and in other sites had significantly better EFS and LCS and in parameningeal also overall survival (OS). The efficacy of low RT doses of 32 Gy (hyperfractionated, accelerated RT [HART]) and 36 and 41.4 Gy (conventional fractionated RT [CFRT]) in the favorable groups and higher doses of 44.8 Gy (HART) and 50.4 and 55.4 Gy (CFRT) in the unfavorable groups was comparable. Proton RT was used predominantly in head/neck-parameningeal (HN-PM) tumors, with similar EFS and LCS to photon RT.
Copyright © American Society of Clinical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Source: Koscielniak, E., Timmermann, B., Munter, M., et al. (2023). Which Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma Need Radiotherapy? Analysis of the Radiotherapy Strategies of the CWS-96 and CWS-2002P Studies and SoTiSaR Registry. J Clinical Oncology. 2023; 41(31): 4916-4926.Published: November 1, 2023. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.22.02673.
An Ontology-Driven Analysis of the Heterogeneity of Multiple Islet Autoimmunity
AUDIENCE: Endocrinology, Pediatric, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: The 15-year risk of progression to type 1 diabetes risk varies markedly from 18 to 88% based on the stringency of mIA definition. While initial categorization identifies highest-risk individuals, short-term follow-up over 2 years may help stratify evolving risk, especially for those with less stringent definitions of mIA.
BACKGROUND: Aim of this study is to estimate the risk of progression to stage 3 type 1 diabetes based on varying definitions of multiple islet autoantibody positivity (mIA).
DETAILS: Type 1 Diabetes Intelligence (T1DI) is a combined prospective data set of children from Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the U.S. who have an increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Analysis included 16,709 infants-toddlers enrolled by age 2.5 years and comparison between groups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Of 865 (5%) children with mIA, 537 (62%) progressed to type 1 diabetes. The 15-year cumulative incidence of diabetes varied from the most stringent definition (mIA/Persistent/2: two or more islet autoantibodies positive at the same visit with two or more antibodies persistent at next visit; 88% [95% CI 85-92%]) to the least stringent (mIA/Any: positivity for two islet autoantibodies without co-occurring positivity or persistence; 18% [5-40%]). Progression in mIA/Persistent/2 was significantly higher than all other groups (P < 0.0001). Intermediate stringency definitions showed intermediate risk and were significantly different than mIA/Any (P < 0.05); however, differences waned over the 2-year follow-up among those who did not subsequently reach higher stringency. Among mIA/Persistent/2 individuals with three autoantibodies, loss of one autoantibody by the 2-year follow-up was associated with accelerated progression. Age was significantly associated with time from seroconversion to mIA/Persistent/2 status and mIA to stage 3 type 1 diabetes.
Copyright © American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved.
Source: Frohnert, B. I., Ghalwash, M., Li, Y., et al. (2023). Refining the Definition of Stage 1 Type 1 Diabetes: An Ontology-Driven Analysis of the Heterogeneity of Multiple Islet Autoimmunity. Diabetes Care . 2023; 46(10): 1753-1761. Published: October, 2023. DOI: 10.2337/dc22-1960.
Results Of A Phase 2B Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
AUDIENCE: Dermatology, Pediatric, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: DMT310 once-weekly topical treatment significantly reduced both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions and yielded a greater proportion of Investigator's Global Assessment treatment success at all time points in participants with moderate-to-severe acne.
BACKGROUND: Poor patient adherence with antiacne medications is a common clinical challenge. DMT310, a natural, topical product with a once-weekly application schedule, may alleviate this obstacle. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of DMT310 in treating moderate-to-severe acne. This 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial enrolled participants 12 years and older with moderate-to-severe acne.
DETAILS: The intent-to-treat population included a total of 181 participants (DMT310, N = 91; placebo, N = 90). Participants who received DMT310 vs participants treated with placebo demonstrated a statistically significant greater reduction in the number of inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions at all time points: inflammatory lesion counts at week 12 (-15.64 vs -10.84, P < .001); noninflammatory lesion counts at week 12 (-18.26 vs -12.41, P < .001). DMT310-treated participants also had higher rates of Investigator's Global Assessment treatment success than participants in the placebo group at all time points: Investigator's Global Assessment at week 12 (44.40% vs 17.78%; P < .001). No serious treatment related adverse events occurred.
Copyright © Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source: Eichenfield, L. F., DuBois, J. C., Gold, M. H., et al. (2023). DMT310, A Novel Once-Weekly Topical Treatment For Patients With Moderate-To-Severe Acne Vulgaris: Results Of A Phase 2B Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. JAAD. 2023; 89(5): 945-951. Published: November, 2023. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaad.2023.05.070.
AUDIENCE: Psychiatry, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: This cohort study found no evidence of treatment-emergent mania/hypomania by 12 weeks in children and adolescents. This corresponds to the time frame for antidepressants to exert their psychotropic effect. A small risk difference was found only with longer follow-up. Certain patient characteristics were associated with mania/hypomania, which warrants clinical attention.
BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are increasingly prescribed to pediatric patients with unipolar depression, but little is known about the risk of treatment-emergent mania. Previous research suggests pediatric patients may be particularly vulnerable to this adverse outcome. Purpose of this study is to estimate whether pediatric patients treated with antidepressants have an increased incidence of mania/hypomania compared with patients not treated with antidepressants and to identify patient characteristics associated with the risk of mania/hypomania.
DETAILS: In a cohort study applying the target trial emulation framework, nationwide inpatient and outpatient care in Sweden from July 1, 2006, to December 31, 2019, was evaluated. Follow-up was conducted for 12 and 52 weeks after treatment initiation, with administrative follow-up ending December 31, 2020. Data were analyzed between May 1, 2022, and June 28, 2023. Individuals aged 4 to 17 years with a diagnosis of depression, but without a prior diagnosis of mania/hypomania, bipolar disorder, or psychosis or treatment with mood stabilizer (lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine), prescriptions were included. The treatment group included patients who initiated any antidepressant medication within 90 days of diagnosis. The control group included patients who did not initiate antidepressants within 90 days. Diagnosis of mania/hypomania or initiation of mood stabilizer therapy. Incidences were estimated with Kaplan-Meier estimator, and inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to adjust for group differences at baseline. The cohort included 43,677 patients (28 885 [66%] girls); 24,573 in the treatment group and 19,104 in the control group. The median age was 15 (IQR, 14-16) years. The outcome occurred in 96 individuals by 12 weeks and in 291 by 52 weeks. The cumulative incidence of mania was 0.26% (95% CI, 0.19%-0.33%) in the treatment group and 0.20% (95% CI, 0.13%-0.27%) in the control group at 12 weeks, with a risk difference of 0.06% (95% CI, -0.04% to 0.16%). At 52 weeks, the cumulative incidence was 0.79% (95% CI, 0.68%-0.91%) in the treatment group and 0.52% (95% CI, 0.40%-0.63%) in the control group (risk difference, 0.28%; 95% CI, 0.12%-0.44%). Hospitalizations, parental bipolar disorder, and use of antipsychotics and antiepileptics were the most important predictors of mania/hypomania by 12 weeks.
Copyright © American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Source: Virtanen, S., Lagerberg, T., Lageborn, C. T., et al. (2023). Antidepressant Use and Risk of Manic Episodes in Children and Adolescents With Unipolar Depression. JAMA Psychiatry. Published: September 27, 2023. DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2023.3555.