Analysis of the Radiotherapy Strategies of the CWS-96 and CWS-2002P Studies and SoTiSaR Registry.
AUDIENCE: Oncology, Pediatric
KEY FINDINGS: RT can be omitted in patients with IRS I eRMS. RT improves LCS and EFS in IRS II and III. RT improves OS in patients with HN-PM, with proton RT comparable with photon RT. Doses of 32 Gy (HART) or 36 and 41.4 Gy (CFRT) had comparable efficacy in patients with favorable risk profiles and 44.8 Gy (HART) or 50.4 and 55.8 Gy (CFRT) in the unfavorable groups.
BACKGROUND: Objective of this study is to analyze and compare the indications, doses, and application methods of radiotherapy (RT) and their influence on prognosis of patients with localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the local control modalities in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) but is associated with severe acute and late toxicities. Authors have analyzed and compared the indications, doses, and application methods of RT and their influence on prognosis for patients with localized RMS.
DETAILS: One thousand four hundred seventy patients with localized RMS 21 years and younger entered on CWS-96, CWS-2002P, and SoTiSaR were eligible for the analysis. The median follow-up was 6.5 years (IQR, 3.3-9.5). The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and local control survival (LCS) for 910 (62%) irradiated versus nonirradiated patients were 71% versus 69% and 78% versus 73% (P = .03), respectively. Ninety-five percent of patients in IRS I (90% embryonal RMS [eRMS]) were nonirradiated (EFS, 87%). Irradiated patients with IRS II had improved LCS (91% v 80%; P = .01) and EFS (not significant). In IRS III, EFS and LCS were significantly better for RT patients: 71% versus 56% (P = 3.1e-06) and 76% versus 61% (P = 4.1e-07). Patients with tumors in the head and neck region (orbita, parameningeal, and nonparameningeal) and in other sites had significantly better EFS and LCS and in parameningeal also overall survival (OS). The efficacy of low RT doses of 32 Gy (hyperfractionated, accelerated RT [HART]) and 36 and 41.4 Gy (conventional fractionated RT [CFRT]) in the favorable groups and higher doses of 44.8 Gy (HART) and 50.4 and 55.4 Gy (CFRT) in the unfavorable groups was comparable. Proton RT was used predominantly in head/neck-parameningeal (HN-PM) tumors, with similar EFS and LCS to photon RT.
Copyright © American Society of Clinical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Source: Koscielniak, E., Timmermann, B., Munter, M., et al. (2023). Which Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma Need Radiotherapy? Analysis of the Radiotherapy Strategies of the CWS-96 and CWS-2002P Studies and SoTiSaR Registry. J Clinical Oncology. 2023; 41(31): 4916-4926.Published: November 1, 2023. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.22.02673.
AUDIENCE: Hematology, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: Myeloablative fractionated busulfan regimen results in low nonrelapse mortality without a higher relapse rate. This regimen is a viable myeloablative alternative for patients who receive a reduced intensity regimen because of age or comorbidity.
BACKGROUND: Traditional conditioning regimens for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) provide suboptimal outcomes, especially for older patients and those with comorbidities. We hypothesized that a fractionated myeloablative busulfan dose delivered over an extended period would reduce nonrelapse mortality (NRM) while retaining antileukemic effects.
DETAILS: Authors performed a phase 2 trial for adults with hematological malignancies receiving matched related or unrelated allo-HCT. Participants received busulfan 80 mg/m2 as outpatients on days -20 and -13 before transplant. Fludarabine 40 mg/m2 was administered on days -6 to -3, followed by busulfan dosed to achieve a target area under the curve of 20,000 mol/min for the whole course. The primary end point was day-100 NRM. Seventy-eight patients were included, with a median age of 61 years (range, 39-70 years), who received transplantation for acute leukemia (24%), myelodysplastic syndrome (27%), or myeloproliferative disease/chronic myeloid leukemia (44%). HCT-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) was >=3 in 34 (44%). With a median follow-up of 36.4 months (range, 2.9-51.5), the 100-day, 1-year, and 3-year NRM rates were 3.8%, 8%, and 9.3%, respectively, without a significant difference in age or HCT-CI score. The 1-year and 3-year relapse incidence was 10% and 18%, respectively. The 3-year overall survival was 80%, without a significant difference in age or HCT-CI score and was similar for patients aged >60 years and those aged <60 years as well as for those with HCT-CI >=3 and HCT-CI <3. Overall, a myeloablative fractionated busulfan regimen has low NRM without an increase in relapse rate, resulting in promising survival, even in older patients or in patients with comorbidities.
Copyright © The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.
Source: Popat, U. R., Pasvolsky, O., Nassett, R. Jr., et al. (2023). Myeloablative Fractionated Busulfan For Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant In Older Patients Or Patients With Comorbidities. Blood Adv.. 2023; 7(20): 6196-6205. Published: October, 2023. DOI: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2023010850.
Placebo-Controlled Randomized Phase III ATALANTE/ENGOT-ov29 Trial
AUDIENCE: Oncology, Ob/Gyn
KEY FINDINGS: ATALANTE/ENGOT-ov29 did not meet its coprimary PFS objectives in the ITT or PD-L1-positive populations. OS follow-up continues. Further research on biopsy samples is warranted to decipher the immunologic landscape of late-relapsing OC.
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based doublets with concurrent and maintenance bevacizumab are standard therapy for ovarian cancer (OC) relapsing after a platinum-free interval (PFI) >6 months. Immunotherapy may be synergistic with bevacizumab and chemotherapy.
DETAILS: ATALANTE/ENGOT-ov29, a placebo-controlled double-blinded randomized phase III trial, enrolled patients with recurrent epithelial OC, one to two previous chemotherapy lines, and PFI >6 months. Eligible patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to atezolizumab (1,200 mg once every 3 weeks or equivalent) or placebo for up to 24 months, combined with bevacizumab and six cycles of chemotherapy doublet, stratified by PFI, PD-L1 status, and chemotherapy regimen. Coprimary end points were investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and PD-L1-positive populations (alpha .025 for each population). Between September 2016 and October 2019, 614 patients were randomly assigned: 410 to atezolizumab and 204 to placebo. Only 38% had PD-L1-positive tumors. After 3 years' median follow-up, the PFS difference between atezolizumab and placebo did not reach statistical significance in the ITT (hazard ratio [HR], 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.99; P = .041; median 13.5 v 11.3 months, respectively) or PD-L1-positive (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.16; P = .30; median 15.2 v 13.1 months, respectively) populations. The immature overall survival (OS) HR was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.65 to 1.01; median 35.5 v 30.6 months with atezolizumab v placebo, respectively). Global health-related quality of life did not differ between treatment arms. Grade >=3 adverse events (AEs) occurred in 88% of atezolizumab-treated and 87% of placebo-treated patients; grade >=3 AEs typical of immunotherapy were more common with atezolizumab (13% v 8%, respectively).
Copyright © American Society of Clinical Oncology
Source: Kurtz, J. E., Pujade-Lauraine, E., Oaknin, A., et al. (2023). Atezolizumab Combined With Bevacizumab and Platinum-Based Therapy for Platinum-Sensitive Ovarian Cancer: Placebo-Controlled Randomized Phase III ATALANTE/ENGOT-ov29 Trial. J Clinical Oncology. 2023: 41(30): 4768-4778. Published: October, 2023. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.23.00529.
A Multicentre, 2 × 2 Factorial, Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial
AUDIENCE: Hematology, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: In patients hospitalised for hip fracture surgery with a haemoglobin concentration 9.5-13.0 g/dL, preoperative infusion of ferric derisomaltose plus tranexamic acid reduced the risk of blood transfusion by 50%. The results suggest that combining treatments from two different pillars improves patient blood-management programmes. Either treatment alone did not reduce transfusion rates, but we might not have had the power to detect it.
BACKGROUND: Anaemia and blood transfusion are associated with poor outcomes after hip fracture. Authors evaluated the efficacy of intravenous iron and tranexamic acid in reducing blood transfusions after hip fracture surgery.
DETAILS: In this double-blind, randomised, 2 x 2 factorial trial, we recruited adults hospitalised for hip fractures in 12 medical centres in France who had preoperative haemoglobin concentrations between 9.5 and 13.0 g/dL. Authors randomly allocated participants (1:1:1:1), via a secure web-based service, to ferric derisomaltose (20 mg/kg intravenously) and tranexamic acid (1 g bolus followed by 1 g over 8 h intravenously at inclusion and 3 g topically during surgery), iron plus placebo (normal saline), tranexamic acid plus placebo, or double placebo. Unmasked nurses administered study drugs; participants and other clinical and research staff remained masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients transfused during hospitalisation (or by day 30). The primary analysis included all randomised patients. This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02972294) and is closed to new participants. Of 413 patients (51-104 years old, median [IQR] 86 [78-91], 312 [76%] women, 101 [24%] men), 104 received iron plus tranexamic acid, 103 iron plus placebo, 103 tranexamic acid plus placebo, and 103 double placebo between March 31, 2017 and June 18, 2021 (study stopped early for efficacy after the planned interim analysis done on the first 390 patients included on May 25, 2021). Data for the primary outcome were available for all participants. Among patients on double placebo, 31 (30%) were transfused versus 16 (15%) on both drugs (relative risk 0.51 [98.3% CI 0.27-0.97]; p=0.012). 27 (26%) participants on iron (0.81 [0.50-1.29]; p=0.28) and 28 (27%) on tranexamic acid (0.85 [0.54-1.33]; p=0.39) were transfused. 487 adverse events were reported with similar event rates among the groups; among prespecified safety endpoints, severe postoperative anaemia (haemoglobin <8 g/dL) was more frequent in the double placebo group. Main common adverse event were sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary infection, with similar rates among all groups.
Copyright © Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source: Lasocki, S., Capdevila, X., Vielle, B., et al. (2023). Ferric Derisomaltose and Tranexamic Acid, Combined Or Alone, For Reducing Blood Transfusion In Patients With Hip Fracture (The Hifit Trial): A Multicentre, 2 × 2 Factorial, Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial. The Lancet. 2023; 10(9): 747-755. Published: September, 2023. DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3026(23)00163-1.
AUDIENCE: Gastroenterology, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: The research provides evidence that EDGE for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography yields good treatment outcomes in patients with RYGBs. The AE rate is significantly lower with 20-mm versus 15-mm LAMS; thus, the former is likely preferable.
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound-directed trans-gastric retrograde cholangiopancreatography (EDGE) is a new procedure for treating pancreaticobiliary diseases in patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The aim of this meta-;analysis was to determine the overall outcomes and safety of EDGE.
DETAILS: Authors performed a computerized search of the main databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Science Citation Index, through October 2022. The main outcome measures examined in the meta-analysis were technical and clinical success rates and overall adverse event (AE) rate, especially the lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) dislodgement rate. AE rates were assessed according to LAMS size (15 vs. 20 mm), number of stages (single vs. two) and access route (gastrogastric vs. jejuno-gastric). Fourteen trials with a total of 574 patients who had undergone 585 EDGE procedures were included in this study. The cumulative technical and clinical success and AE rates were 98%, 94%, and 14%, respectively. The commonest AE was LAMS dislodgement (rate 4%). The overall AE rate was lower in the 20-mm LAMS than in the 15-mm LAMS group (odds ratio [OR]=5.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.35 to 14.29). There were no significant differences in AE rate between number of stages (OR=1.36; 95% CI: 0.51 to 3.64) or differing access routes (OR=1.03; 95% CI 0.48 to 2.22).
Copyright © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Source: Tong, S., Tianjie, C., Jing, W., et al. (2023). Endoscopic-Directed Trans-Gastric Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Patients With Roux-en-Y gastric Bypasses: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 2023; 57(9): 871-878. Published: September, 2023. DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001864.
AUDIENCE: Dermatology, Oncology, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: In addition, Rab7a overexpression is accompanied by reduced migration capacity. Taken together, the study emphasizes that alterations in lysosomal properties facilitate the malignant phenotype and declares the targeting of lysosomal function as a future therapeutic approach.
BACKGROUND: Lysosomes are central in cell homeostasis and participate in macromolecular degradation, plasma membrane repair, exosome release, cell adhesion/migration, and apoptosis. In cancer, alterations in lysosomal function and spatial distribution may facilitate disease progression.
DETAILS: In this study, authors show enhanced lysosomal activity in malignant melanoma cells compared with that in normal human melanocytes. Most lysosomes show perinuclear location in melanocytes, while they are more dispersed in melanoma, with retained proteolytic activity and low pH also in the peripheral population. Rab7a expression is lower in melanoma cells than in melanocytes, and by increasing Rab7a, lysosomes are relocated to the perinuclear region in melanoma. Exposure to the lysosome-destabilizing drug L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester causes higher damage in the perinuclear subset of lysosomes in melanomas, whereas differences in subpopulation susceptibility cannot be found in melanocytes. Interestingly, melanoma cells recruit the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III core protein CHMP4B, involved in lysosomal membrane repair, rather than initiate lysophagy. However, when the perinuclear lysosomal position is promoted by Rab7a overexpression or kinesore treatment, lysophagy is increased.
Copyright © The Authors. Published by Elsevier, Inc. on behalf of the Society for Investigative Dermatology. All rights reserved.
Source: Eriksson, I., Vainikka, L., Waster, P., et al. (2023). Lysosomal Function and Intracellular Position Determine the Malignant Phenotype in Malignant Melanoma. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2023; 143 (9): 1769-1778. Published: September, 2023. DOI: 10.1016/j.jid.2023.01.036.