KEY FINDINGS: Changes in depression were influenced by multiple factors with stability and predictability across time. Psychological dimensions, such as perceived stress and cognitive fusion, are risk factors for developing postpartum depression and antenatal depression.
BACKGROUND: Purpose of this study is to explore fluctuations in perinatal depression based on physiological, psychological and interpersonal dimensions to analyse risk factors across three time points: in the third trimester and at weeks 1 and 6 postpartum. Pregnant women experience depression at multiple time points and require screening. Studies have shown protective and negative factors related to postpartum depression. Cognitive fusion refers to an individual's emotions and behaviours that are regulated and influenced by that individual's own cognitive overregulation, especially when facing stress. This is an important psychological factor related to depression, but little is known about it in pregnant women.
DETAILS: Pregnant women (n = 207) were recruited, and a questionnaire survey was performed at 32-34 weeks of pregnancy and at weeks 1 and 6 postpartum. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to analyse the changes in depression over time. Regression analysis and linear mixed modelling were used to identify risk factors. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to analyse the relationships between variables. Of the pregnant women, 36.70% experienced antenatal depression and prolonged depression with the onset of postpartum depression (12.21%). Some depressive moods disappeared spontaneously after delivery (47.37%). Perceived stress was the highest risk predictor of postpartum depression (ß = 0.332), followed by cognitive fusion (ß = 0.178), which remained stable over time and might have been positively related to having a vulnerable personality (0.2 < r < 0.4). Social support plays a positive role in lowering postpartum depression (ß = -0.027).
Copyright © John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source: Liu, W., Wu, X., Gao, Y., et al. (2023). A Longitudinal Study Of Perinatal Depression and The Risk Role Of Cognitive Fusion and Perceived Stress On Postpartum Depression. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2023; 32(5-6): 799-811. Published: March, 2023. DOI: 10.1111/jocn.16338.
AUDIENCE: Infectious Disease, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: C. auris case counts have increased for many reasons, including poor general infection prevention and control (IPC) practices in healthcare facilities. Case counts may also have increased because of enhanced efforts to detect cases, including increased colonization screening, a test to see if someone has the fungus somewhere on their body but does not have an infection or symptoms of infection. The timing of this increase and findings from public health investigations suggest C. auris spread may have worsened due to strain on healthcare and public health systems during the COVID-19 pandemic.
BACKGROUND: Candida auris (C. auris), an emerging fungus considered an urgent antimicrobial resistance (AR) threat, spread at an alarming rate in U.S. healthcare facilities in 2020-2021, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published in the Annals of Internal Medicine. Equally concerning was a tripling in 2021 of the number of cases that were resistant to echinocandins, the antifungal medicine most recommended for treatment of C. auris infections. In general, C. auris is not a threat to healthy people. People who are very sick, have invasive medical devices, or have long or frequent stays in healthcare facilities are at increased risk for acquiring C. auris. CDC has deemed C. auris as an urgent AR threat, because it is often resistant to multiple antifungal drugs, spreads easily in healthcare facilities, and can cause severe infections with high death rates.
DETAILS: "The rapid rise and geographic spread of cases is concerning and emphasizes the need for continued surveillance, expanded lab capacity, quicker diagnostic tests, and adherence to proven infection prevention and control," said CDC epidemiologist Dr. Meghan Lyman, lead author of the paper.
As further explained in the article, C. auris has spread in the United States since it was first reported in 2016, with a total of 3,270 clinical cases (in which infection is present) and 7,413 screening cases (in which the fungus is detected but not causing infection) reported through December 31, 2021. Clinical cases have increased each year since 2016, with the most rapid rise occurring during 2020-2021. CDC has continued to see an increase in case counts for 2022. During 2019-2021, 17 states identified their first C. auris case ever. Nationwide, clinical cases rose from 476 in 2019 to 1,471 in 2021. Screening cases tripled from 2020 to 2021, for a total of 4,041. Screening is important to prevent spread by identifying patients carrying the fungus so that infection prevention controls can be used.
The CDC's Antimicrobial Resistance Laboratory Network, which provides nationwide lab capacity to rapidly detect antimicrobial resistance and inform local responses to prevent spread and protect people, provided some of the data for this report. CDC worked to significantly strengthen laboratory capacity, including in state, territorial, and local health departments, through supplemental funding supported by the American Rescue Plan Act. These efforts include increasing susceptibility testing capacity for C. auris from seven Regional Labs to more than 26 labs nationwide.
CDC continues to work with state, local, and territorial health departments and other partners to address this emerging threat to public health. Review more information on C. auris, the Antimicrobial Resistance Threats Report that identified C. auris as an urgent threat in the United States, or the WHO fungal priority pathogen list that identifies C. auris as a priority globally.
Copyright © CDC. All rights reserved.
Source: Increasing Threat of Spread of Antimicrobial-resistant Fungus in Healthcare Facilities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2023; 320. Published: March 20, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2023/p0320-cauris.html.
KEY FINDINGS: Study findings encourage very judicious use of virtual care for communities that are at high risk for birth disparities to avoid impacting relationship building between patient and provider.
BACKGROUND: The rapid uptake of telehealth for perinatal care during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to mixed evidence as to its effectiveness, with limited research demonstrating satisfaction and appropriateness for communities at risk for poor birth outcomes. The purpose of this article is to describe the experiences of virtual care during pregnancy and postpartum among a diverse group of pregnant/birthing people in Washington State during the COVID-19 pandemic.
DETAILS: Conducted a thematic analysis study exploring experiences of care during the COVID-19 pandemic for 15 pregnant and birthing people in Washington State. This secondary analysis utilized data specific to experiences receiving care via telehealth. Three dominant themes were identified: loss of connection and relationships with providers; need for hands-on interactions for reassurance; and virtual care is good for some things but not all-desire for immediate, accessible care when appropriate. The majority of participants felt that it was subpar to in-person care due to a lack of connection and the inability to receive necessary tests and hands-on reassurance.
Copyright © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
Source: Altman, M. R., Mohammed, S. A., Eagen-Torkko, M. K., et al. (2023). Losing Connection: Experiences of Virtual Pregnancy and Postpartum Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing. 2023; 37(1): 44-49. Published: March, 2023. DOI: 6575602.
A Retrospective Case Series Of 11 Patients
KEY FINDINGS: This case series showed that patients with CBTs should be assessed with a combination of history and physical exams along with imaging studies to confirm the diagnosis. Because CBTs may become malignant and metastasize, it is important for NPs to be knowledgeable about presenting symptoms and appropriate diagnostic studies to be able to refer patients to vascular surgeons early to prevent complications.
BACKGROUND: Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are uncommon neuroendocrine tumors located near the carotid bifurcation within the carotid body. CBTs are slow-growing; affected individuals may remain asymptomatic for years and are often diagnosed incidentally following imaging studies. When present, symptoms are nonspecific. Because incidence is low, retrospective review of CBT case series is an ideal study design for investigating common symptomology, identifying successful diagnostic tools, and evaluating treatment outcomes.
DETAILS: This article describes a case series of 11 patients treated for CBTs at an academic medical center in the Southeastern US. A retrospective chart review of 11 patients who had been discharged from the hospital following treatment for CBTs between 2017 and 2021 was conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to delineate the case series. There were four males (36%) and seven females (64%) included in the retrospective case series. The age range was 34 to 79 with a mean of 56.73 (standard deviation 16.038). Three patients were found to have a neck mass on physical exam. Additional symptoms included vocal cord paralysis, facial paralysis, ischemic stroke, Bell palsy, dysphonia, and dizziness. Two patients had familial CBTs. Ten patients underwent surgical excision.
Copyright © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Source: Ratliff, C. R. and Strider, D. V. (2023). Carotid Body Tumors: A Retrospective Case Series Of 11 Patients. The Nurse Practitioner. 2023; 48(2): 35-40. Published: February, 2023. DOI: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000000000000004.
KEY FINDINGS: Necrotising enterocolitis continues to be one of the most devastating and unpredictable condition affecting preterm infants, leading to a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Standardised guidelines should be developed and applied in neonatal units, promoting the use of human milk with human milk fortifiers with the aim of reducing the risk of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review was to determine whether breast milk fortified with human-based fortifiers decreases the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants.
DETAILS: A search was carried out ending July 2021. Academic Search Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, CINAHL plus with full text, Environmental Complete (EBSCO), JAMA Network, MEDLINE, BioMed Central and SAGE Journals and Google Scholar were searched. Keywords included: preterm, infants, breast milk, formula milk and necrotising enterocolitis. Sixteen of the 1316 retrieved papers were included. Human milk, whether mother's own or donor milk, and human milk fortifiers decrease the risk of necrotising enterocolitis, compared to formula milk and non-human fortifiers. The initial number of studies retrieved was 1316. This number was reduced to 650 after removal of duplicates and after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, this was further reduced to 16 studies. The final number of chosen articles included eight systematic reviews and meta-analysis, two retrospective studies, three multi-centre randomised controlled trials, one comparison cohort, one prospective cohort and one multicentre retrospective cohort. The results of this review appear to provide incontrovertible evidence on the association between human milk and human milk fortifiers and a decreased risk of necrotising enterocolitis in low birth weight, very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight infants when compared to the use of formula milk fortified with non-human fortifiers. The strength of this evidence can be qualified as medium to high.
Copyright © Neonatal Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source: Magro, S. Cini, A., Sammut, R. (2023). The Association Between Human Milk and Human Milk Fortifiers and Necrotising Enterocolitis In Preterm Infants: A Review. Journal of Neonatal Nursing. 2023; 29(1): 10-19. Published: February, 2023. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnn.2022.02.010.