A Cohort Study
AUDIENCE: Internal Medicine, Cardiology
KEY FINDINGS: Postoperative AF after noncardiac surgery is associated with similar risk for thromboembolism compared with nonoperative AF. Our findings have potentially important implications for the early postsurgical and subsequent management of postoperative AF.
BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) after noncardiac surgery confers increased risks for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). How outcomes for postoperative AF after noncardiac surgery compare with those for AF occurring outside of the operative setting is unknown. Purpose of this study is to compare the risks for ischemic stroke or TIA and other outcomes in patients with postoperative AF versus those with incident AF not associated with surgery.
DETAILS: Patients were categorized as having AF occurring within 30 days of a noncardiac surgery (postoperative AF) or having AF unrelated to surgery (nonoperative AF). The population consisted predominantly of White patients; caution should be used when extrapolating the results to more racially diverse populations. Of 4231 patients with incident AF, 550 (13%) had postoperative AF as their first-ever documented AF presentation. Over a mean follow-up of 6.3 years, 486 patients had an ischemic stroke or TIA and 2462 had subsequent AF; a total of 2565 deaths occurred. The risk for stroke or TIA was similar between those with postoperative AF and nonoperative AF (absolute risk difference [ARD] at 5 years, 0.1% [95% CI, -2.9% to 3.1%]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.01 [CI, 0.77 to 1.32]). A lower risk for subsequent AF was seen for patients with postoperative AF (ARD at 5 years, -13.4% [CI, -17.8% to -9.0%]; HR, 0.68 [CI, 0.60 to 0.77]). Finally, no difference was seen for cardiovascular death or all-cause death between patients with postoperative AF and nonoperative AF.
Copyright © American College of Physicians. All Rights Reserved.
Source: Siontis, K. C., Gersh, B. J., Weston, S. A., et al. (2022). Associations of Atrial Fibrillation After Noncardiac Surgery With Stroke, Subsequent Arrhythmia, and Death: A Cohort Study. Annals of Internal Medicine. Published: July 26, 2022. DOI: 10.7326/M22-0434.
AUDIENCE: Hematology, Infectious Disease
DETAILS: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration finalized recommendations for assessing blood donor eligibility using a set of individual risk-based questions to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV. These questions will be the same for every donor, regardless of sexual orientation, sex or gender. Blood establishments may now implement these recommendations by revising their donor history questionnaires and procedures.
This updated policy is based on the best available scientific evidence and is in line with policies in place in countries like the United Kingdom and Canada. It will potentially expand the number of people eligible to donate blood, while also maintaining the appropriate safeguards to protect the safety of the blood supply.
These final recommendations are consistent with the policy initially proposed in January. The FDA worked diligently to review and consider all comments submitted to the agency to finalize these recommendations as quickly as possible. "The FDA has worked diligently to evaluate our policies and ensure we had the scientific evidence to support individual risk assessment for donor eligibility while maintaining appropriate safeguards to protect recipients of blood products. The implementation of these recommendations will represent a significant milestone for the agency and the LGBTQI+ community," said Peter Marks, M.D., PhD., director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. "The FDA is committed to working closely with the blood collection industry to help ensure timely implementation of the new recommendations and we will continue to monitor the safety of the blood supply once this individual risk-based approach is in place."
This policy eliminates time-based deferrals and screening questions specific to men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with MSM. Under the final guidance issued today, all prospective blood donors will answer a series of individual, risk-based questions to determine eligibility. All prospective donors who report having a new sexual partner, or more than one sexual partner in the past three months, and anal sex in the past three months, would be deferred to reduce the likelihood of donations by individuals with new or recent HIV infection who may be in the window period for detection of HIV by nucleic acid testing.
Additionally, under these final recommendations, those taking medications to treat or prevent HIV infection (e.g., antiretroviral therapy (ART), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)), will also be deferred. Though these antiretroviral drugs are safe, effective, and an important public health tool, the available data demonstrate that their use may delay detection of HIV by currently licensed screening tests for blood donations, which may potentially give false negative results. Although HIV is not transmitted sexually by individuals with undetectable viral levels, this does not apply to transfusion transmission of HIV because a blood transfusion is administered intravenously, and a transfusion involves a large volume of blood compared to exposure with sexual contact. As stated in the guidance, individuals should not stop taking their prescribed medications, including PrEP, or PEP, in order to donate blood. The FDA remains committed to evaluating additional data and new technological developments as they become available to inform our donor eligibility recommendations.
The FDA has been evaluating alternatives to time-based deferrals for MSM and helping to facilitate the generation of scientific evidence that would support an individual risk based- assessment blood donor questionnaire. This scientific information has given the agency a solid foundation to support this new policy. The FDA strongly believes the implementation of an individual risk-based approach will not adversely affect the safety or availability of the U.S. blood supply.
The FDA carefully reviewed numerous data sources, including data from countries with similar HIV epidemiology that have implemented an individual risk-based approach for assessing donor eligibility, surveillance information obtained from the Transfusion Transmissible Infections Monitoring System, performance characteristics of nucleic acid testing for HIV and the FDA-funded Assessing Donor Variability And New Concepts in Eligibility study. The ADVANCE study examined the rates of HIV risk factors, such as anal sex and rates of HIV infection, as well as the usage of medications to treat or prevent HIV infection, among MSM study participants.
Copyright © FDA. All rights reserved.
Source: FDA Finalizes Move to Recommend Individual Risk Assessment to Determine Eligibility for Blood Donations. FDA. Published: May 11, 2023.
AUDIENCE: Gastroenterology, Oncology, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: The findings identify an important role for a subgroup of highly connected enhancers (iHUBs) in regulating chemotherapy response and demonstrate targetability in sensitisation to chemotherapy.
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) displays a remarkable propensity towards therapy resistance. However, molecular epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms enabling this are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to identify novel mechanistic approaches to overcome or prevent resistance in PDAC.
DETAILS: Authors used in vitro and in vivo models of resistant PDAC and integrated epigenomic, transcriptomic, nascent RNA and chromatin topology data. They identified a JunD-driven subgroup of enhancers, called interactive hubs (iHUBs), which mediate transcriptional reprogramming and chemoresistance in PDAC. iHUBs display characteristics typical for active enhancers (H3K27ac enrichment) in both therapy sensitive and resistant states but exhibit increased interactions and production of enhancer RNA (eRNA) in the resistant state. Notably, deletion of individual iHUBs was sufficient to decrease transcription of target genes and sensitise resistant cells to chemotherapy. Overlapping motif analysis and transcriptional profiling identified the activator protein 1 (AP1) transcription factor JunD as a master transcription factor of these enhancers. JunD depletion decreased iHUB interaction frequency and transcription of target genes. Moreover, targeting either eRNA production or signaling pathways upstream of iHUB activation using clinically tested small molecule inhibitors decreased eRNA production and interaction frequency, and restored chemotherapy responsiveness in vitro and in vivo. Representative iHUB target genes were found to be more expressed in patients with poor response to chemotherapy compared with responsive patients.
Copyright © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Society of Gastroenterology. All rights reserved.
Source: Hamdan, F. H., Abdelrahman, A. M., Kutschat, A. P., et al. (2023). Interactive Enhancer Hubs (iHUBs) Mediate Transcriptional Reprogramming And Adaptive Resistance In Pancreatic Cancer. Gut. 2023; 72(6): 1174-1185. Published: June, 2023. DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2022-328154.
AUDIENCE: Neurology, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: The results show that combining scRNA-seq and WGS data can successfully detect putative somatic mutations. The putative somatic mutations detected from ROSMAP data set have provided new insights into the association of AD and aging with brain somatic mutagenesis.
BACKGROUND: With age, somatic mutations accumulated in human brain cells can lead to various neurologic disorders and brain tumors. Because the incidence rate of Alzheimer disease (AD) increases exponentially with age, investigating the association between AD and the accumulation of somatic mutation can help understand the etiology of AD.
DETAILS: Authors designed a somatic mutation detection workflow by contrasting genotypes derived from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data with genotypes derived from scRNA-seq data and applied this workflow to 76 participants from the Religious Order Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (ROSMAP) cohort. We focused only on excitatory neurons, the dominant cell type in the scRNA-seq data. 196 sites were identified that harbored at least 1 individual with an excitatory neuron–specific somatic mutation (ENSM), and these 196 sites were mapped to 127 genes. The single base substitution (SBS) pattern of the putative ENSMs was best explained by signature SBS5 from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) mutational signatures, a clock-like pattern correlating with the age of the individual. The count of ENSMs per individual also showed an increasing trend with age. Among the mutated sites, we found 2 sites tend to have more mutations in older individuals (16:6899517 [RBFOX1], p = 0.04; 4:21788463 [KCNIP4], p < lt; 0.05). In addition, 2 sites were found to have a higher odds ratio to detect a somatic mutation in AD samples (6:73374221 [KCNQ5], p = 0.01 and 13:36667102 [DCLK1], p = 0.02). Thirty-two genes that harbor somatic mutations unique to AD and the KCNQ5 and DCLK1 genes were used for gene ontology (GO)–term enrichment analysis. We found the AD-specific ENSMs enriched in the GO-term "vocalization behavior" and "intraspecies interaction between organisms." Of interest we observed both age-specific and AD-specific ENSMs enriched in the K+ channel–associated genes.
Copyright © American Academy of Neurology. All Rights Reserved.
Source: Zhang, M., Bouland, G. A., Holstege, H., et al. (2023). Identifying Aging and Alzheimer Disease-Associated Somatic Variations in Excitatory Neurons From the Human Frontal Cortex. Neuro Genetics. 2023; 9(3): e200066. Published: June, 2023. DOI: 10.1212/NXG.0000000000200066.
A Population-Based Cohort Study
AUDIENCE: Endocrinology, Ob/Gyn
KEY FINDINGS: Gestational glucose intolerance, including conditions not meeting gestational diabetes criteria of the two-step strategy, confers a high risk of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. These conditions should be recognised as risk factors for type 2 diabetes, especially among women with abnormal fasting glucose concentrations during pregnancy.
BACKGROUND: The risk of type 2 diabetes among women with glucose intolerance during pregnancy that does not meet gestational diabetes criteria requires further investigation. We aimed to explore the associations between various degrees of gestational glucose intolerance and the risk of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood.
DETAILS: For this population-based cohort study, the national Israeli conscription database was linked to Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS), the second-largest state-mandated health provider in Israel. Researcghers included 177,241 women who underwent a pre-recruitment evaluation at adolescence (age 16-20 years), 1 year before mandatory military service, and later underwent, from Jan 1, 2001, to Dec 31, 2019, two-step gestational diabetes screening with a 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) based on a threshold of 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L), followed as needed by a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Abnormal OGTT values were defined according to the Carpenter-Coustan thresholds: 95 mg/dL (5.3 mmol/L) or higher in the fasting state; 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L) or higher at 1 h; 155 mg/dL (8.6 mmol/L) or higher at 2 h; and 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) or higher at 3 h. The primary outcome was incident type 2 diabetes in the MHS diabetes registry. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs for incident type 2 diabetes. During a cumulative follow-up of 1,882,647 person-years, and with a median follow-up of 10.8 (IQR 5.2-16.4) years, 1262 women were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Crude incidence rates of type 2 diabetes were 2.6 (95% CI 2.4-2.9) per 10,000 person-years in women with gestational normoglycaemia, 8.9 (7.4-10.6) per 10,000 person-years in women with an abnormal GCT and normal OGTT, 26.1 (22.4-30.1) per 10,000 person-years in women with one abnormal OGTT value (in the fasting state or 1 h, 2 h, or 3 h post-challenge), and 71.9 (66.0-78.3) per 10,000 person-years in women with gestational diabetes. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, adolescent BMI, and age at gestational screening, the risk of type 2 diabetes was higher, compared to the gestational normoglycaemia group, in women with an abnormal GCT and normal OGTT (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.39 [95% CI 2.77-4.16]; p<0.0001), in women with one abnormal OGTT value (9.11 [7.64-10.86]; p<0.0001), and in women with gestational diabetes (24.84 [21.78-28.34]; p<0.0001). The risk of type 2 diabetes was modestly increased in women with isolated elevated fasting glucose (adjusted HR 11.81 [95% CI 8.58-16.25]; p<0.0001), and in women with gestational diabetes and an abnormal fasting glucose (38.02 [32.41-44.61]; p<0.0001).
Copyright © Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source: Bardugo, A., Bendor, C. D., Rotem, R. S., et al. (2023). Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy and Risk Of Early-Onset Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study. The Lancet. 2023; 11(5): 333-344. Published: May, 2023. DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(23)00062-1.
AUDIENCE: Nephrology, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: Protein carbamylation, a nonenzymatic post-translational protein modification partially driven by elevated blood urea levels, associates with mortality and adverse outcomes in patients with ESKD on dialysis. However, little is known about carbamylation's relationship to clinical outcomes in the much larger population of patients with earlier stages of CKD. In this prospective observational cohort study of 3111 individuals with CKD stages 2-4, higher levels of carbamylated albumin (a marker of protein carbamylation burden) were associated with a greater risk of developing ESKD and other significant adverse clinical outcomes. These findings indicate that protein carbamylation is an independent risk factor for CKD progression. They suggest that further study of therapeutic interventions to prevent or reduce carbamylation is warranted.
BACKGROUND: Protein carbamylation, a post-translational protein modification partially driven by elevated blood urea levels, associates with adverse outcomes in ESKD. However, little is known about protein carbamylation's relationship to clinical outcomes in the much larger population of patients with earlier stages of CKD.
DETAILS: To test associations between protein carbamylation and the primary outcome of progression to ESKD, authors measured baseline serum carbamylated albumin (C-Alb) in 3111 patients with CKD stages 2-4 enrolled in the prospective observational Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study. The mean age of study participants was 59 years (SD 10.8); 1358 (43.7%) were female, and 1334 (42.9%) were White. The mean eGFR at the time of C-Alb assessment was 41.8 (16.4) ml/minute per 1.73 m2, and the median C-Alb value was 7.8 mmol/mol (interquartile range, 5.8-10.7). During an average of 7.9 (4.1) years of follow-up, 981 (31.5%) individuals developed ESKD. In multivariable adjusted Cox models, higher C-Alb (continuous or quartiles) independently associated with an increased risk of ESKD. For example, compared with quartile 1 (C-Alb <=5.80 mmol/mol), those in quartile 4 (C-Alb >10.71 mmol/mol) had a greater risk for ESKD (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.75 to 2.99), and the ESKD incidence rate per 1000 patient-years increased from 15.7 to 88.5 from quartile 1 to quartile 4. The results remained significant across numerous subgroup analyses, when treating death as a competing event, and using different assessments of eGFR.
Copyright © American Society of Nephrology. All rights reserved.
Source: Kalim, S., Zhgao, S., Tang, M., et al. (2023). Protein Carbamylation and the Risk of ESKD in Patients with CKD.. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2023; 34(5): 876-885. Published: May, 2023. DOI: 10.1681/ASN.0000000000000078.