Results from the GCKD Study.
AUDIENCE: Internal Medicine, Nephrology
KEY FINDINGS: The data support a link between elevated apoA-IV concentrations and reduced inflammation in moderate CKD. ApoA-IV appears to be an independent risk marker for reduced all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and heart failure in a large cohort of patients with CKD.
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a chronic proinflammatory state and is associated with very high cardiovascular risk. Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) has antiatherogenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties and levels increase significantly during the course of CKD. Study aimed to investigate the association between apoA-IV and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in the German Chronic Kidney Disease study.
DETAILS: This was a prospective cohort study including 5141 Caucasian patients with available apoA-IV measurements and CKD. The majority of the patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-60 ml/min/1.73m2 or an eGFR >60 ml/min/1.73m2 in the presence of overt proteinuria. Median follow-up was 6.5 years. The association of apoA-IV with comorbidities at baseline and endpoints during follow-up was modelled adjusting for major confounders. Mean apoA-IV concentrations of the entire cohort were 28.9 ± 9.8 mg/dl. Patients in the highest apoA-IV quartile had the lowest high-sensitivity C-reactive protein values despite the highest prevalence of diabetes, albuminuria and the lowest eGFR. Each 10 mg/dl higher apoA-IV translated into lower odds of prevalent cardiovascular disease (1289 cases, odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.86, p = 0.0000003). During follow-up, each 10 mg/dl higher apoA-IV was significantly associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality (600 cases, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.89, p = 0.00004), incident major adverse cardiovascular events (506 cases, HR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.99, p = 0.03) and death or hospitalizations due to heart failure (346 cases, HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96, p = 0.01).
Copyright © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved
Source: Schwaiger, J. P., Kollerits, B., Steinbrenner, I., et al. (2022). Apolipoprotein A-IV Concentrations And Clinical Outcomes In A Large Chronic Kidney Disease Cohort: Results from the GCKD Study. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2022; 291(5): 622-636. Published: May, 2022. DOI: 10.1111/joim.13437.
AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: The prevalence of LVNC based on neonatal echocardiography was 0.076%. LVNC was associated with lower LV systolic function. The findings in normal newborns support the cutoff NC:C >=2 as an appropriate diagnostic criterion.
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is characterized by excessive trabeculations of the LV and may be associated with reduced systolic function or severe adverse outcomes. Several aspects remain to be elucidated; there is controversy to whether LVNC cardiomyopathy is a distinct cardiomyopathy caused by failure of the spongy fetal myocardium to condense during fetal development or acquired later in life as a morphological trait associated with other types of cardiomyopathy; the prevalence in unselected populations is unknown and the distinction between normal variation and pathology remains to be defined. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of LVNC and the association to LV systolic function in a large, population-based cohort of neonates. In addition, we assessed the normal ratio of noncompact to compact (NC:C) myocardium in 150 healthy neonates.
DETAILS: Echocardiographic data were prospectively collected in the population study Copenhagen Baby Heart Study. The ratio of NC:C was measured in 12 ventricular segments. LVNC was defined as NC:C >=2 in at least one segment. Neonates with LVNC were matched 1:10 to controls on sex, gestational age, and weight and age at the examination day. In total, 25,590 neonates (52% males, median age 11 [interquartile range, 7-15] days) underwent echocardiography. Among 21,133 with satisfactory visualization of ventricular segments, we identified a prevalence of LVNC of 0.076% (95% CI, 0.047-0.123). LV ejection fraction was lower in neonates with LVNC compared with matched controls (median 49.5 versus 59.0%; P&;t;0.0001). In neonates with otherwise healthy hearts, the median NC:C ratio ranged from 0.0 to 0.7 and the 99th percentiles from 1.0 to 1.9 for each of the 12 segments.
Copyright © American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved.
Source: Borresen, M. F., Blixenkrone-Moller, E., Kock, T. O., et al. (2022). Prevalence of Left Ventricular Noncompaction in Newborns. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging. 2022; 15(6). Published: June 21, 2022. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.121.014159.
KEY FINDINGS: These findings provide novel evidence that the increase in EGP induced by SGLT2i is present during an oral glucose load. The fact that stimulation of EGP occurs despite elevated plasma insulin and glucagon suggests that additional factors must be involved.
BACKGROUND: Purpose of this trial is to examine the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on endogenous glucose production (EGP) in patients with type 2 diabetes after an oral glucose load.
DETAILS: Forty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes received an 8-h [3-3H]-glucose infusion (protocol I) to assess EGP response to: 1) dapagliflozin (DAPA), 10 mg; 2) exenatide (EXE), 5 μg s.c.; 3) DAPA/EXE; and 4) placebo (PCB). After 2 weeks (protocol II), patients were restudied with a 5-h double-tracer (i.v. [3-3H]-glucose and oral [1-14C]-glucose) oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) preceded by PCB, DAPA, EXE, or DAPA/EXE. Protocol I: EGP decreased (P < 0.01) with PCB (2.16 ± 0.15 to 1.57 ± 0.08 mg/kg/min) and EXE (2.13 ± 0.16 to 1.58 ± 0.03) and remained unchanged (P = NS) with DAPA (2.04 ± 0.17 vs. 1.94 ± 0.18) and DAPA/EXE (2.13 ± 0.10 vs. 2.09 ± 0.03). During OGTT, EGP decreased (P < 0.01) with PCB (2.30 ± 0.05 to. 1.45 ± 0.06 mg/kg/min) and EXE (2.53 ± 0.08 to 1.36 ± 0.06); with DAPA (2.20 ± 0.04 vs. 1.71 ± 0.07) and DAPA/EXE (2.48 ± 0.05 vs. 1.64 ± 0.07), the decrease in EGP was attenuated (both P < 0.05). During OGTT, the insulin/glucagon (INS/GCN) ratio increased in PCB (0.26 ± 0.03 vs. 0.71 ± 0.06 μU/mL per pg/mL), whereas in DAPA (0.26 ± 0.02 to 0.50 ± 0.04), the increase was blunted (P < 0.05). In EXE, INS/GCN increased significantly (0.32 ± 0.03 to 1.31 ± 0.08) and was attenuated in DAPA/EXE (0.32 ± 0.03 vs. 0.78 ± 0.08) (P < 0.01).
Copyright © American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved.
Source: Alatrach, M., Agyin, C., Solis-Herrera, C., et al. (2022). Dapagliflozin Impairs the Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production in Type 2 Diabetes Following Oral Glucose. Diabetes Care . 2022; 45(6): 1372-1380. Published: June 6, 2022. DOI: 10.2337/dc21-1798.
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Levels Can Be Used to Rule Out Cirrhosis in Hepatitis B e Antigen-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B: Results From the SONIC-B Study
AUDIENCE: Infectious Disease, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: Hepatitis B virus genotype-specific HBsAg cutoffs may have utility in ruling out presence of cirrhosis in HBeAg-positive patients with genotypes B, C, and D and can be an adjunct to FIB-4 to reduce the need for further testing.
BACKGROUND: Serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels correlate with the duration of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and may predict the extent of hepatic fibrosis.
DETAILS: Analyzed data from the SONIC-B database, which contains data from 8 global randomized trials and 2 large hepatology centers. Relationship between HBsAg levels and presence of significant fibrosis (Ishak 3-4) or cirrhosis (Ishak 5-6) were explored, and clinically relevant cutoffs were identified to rule out cirrhosis. The dataset included 2779 patients: 1866 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive; 322 with cirrhosis. Among HBeAg-positive patients, lower HBsAg levels were associated with higher rates of significant fibrosis (odds ratio [OR], 0.419; P < .001) and cirrhosis (OR, 0.435; P < .001). No relationship was observed among HBeAg-negative patients. Among HBeAg-positive patients, genotype-specific HBsAg cutoffs had excellent negative predictive values (>97%) and low misclassification rates (<=7.1%) and may therefore have utility in ruling out cirrhosis. Diagnostic performance of the HBsAg cutoffs was comparable among patients in whom cirrhosis could not be ruled out with fibrosis 4 (FIB-4).
Copyright © Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
Source: Sonneveld, M. J., Hansen, B. H., Brouwer, W. P., et al. (2022). Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Levels Can Be Used to Rule Out Cirrhosis in Hepatitis B e Antigen-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B: Results From the SONIC-B Study. J Infect Disease. 2022; 225(11): 1967-1973. Published: June 6, 2022. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa192.
The PICCLES Randomized Controlled Trial
AUDIENCE: Gastroenterology, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: In a randomized trial, sips of pickle brine consumed at cramp onset improve cramp severity without adverse events.
BACKGROUND: Muscle cramps are common among persons with cirrhosis and associated with poor health-related quality of life. Treatment options are limited. We sought to determine whether pickle juice can improve muscle cramp severity.
DETAILS: There were 82 patients were enrolled with cirrhosis and a history of >4 muscle cramps in the previous month from December 2020 to December 2021. Patients were randomized 1:1 to sips of pickle juice vs tap water at cramp onset. Our primary outcome assessed at 28 days was the change in cramp severity measured by the visual analog scale for cramps (VAS-cramps, scaled 0-10). Cramps were assessed 10 times over 28 days using interactive text messages. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of days with VAS-cramps <5, change in sleep quality, and global health-related quality of life measured using the EQ-5D. Overall, 74 patients completed the trial, aged 56.6 ± 11.5 years, 54% male, 41% with ascites, 38% with encephalopathy, and model for end-stage liver disease—sodium score 11.2 ± 4.9. Many patients were receiving other cramp therapies at baseline. The baseline VAS for cramps was 4.2 ± 3.4, the EQ-5D was 0.80 ± 0.10, and 43% rated sleep as poor. At trial completion, the respective values for the pickle juice and control arms were -2.25 ± 3.61 points on the VAS for cramps, compared with control tap water (-0.36 ± 2.87), P = 0.03; a proportion of cramp-days with VAS-cramps <5 were 46% vs 35% (P = 0.2); and the change in sleep quality was not different (P = 0.1). The end-of-trial EQ-5D was 0.78 ± 0.10 vs 0.80 ± 0.10 (P = 0.3). No differences in weight change were observed for those with and without ascites.
Copyright © The American College of Gastroenterology. All rights reserved.
Source: Tapper, E. B., Salim J., Baki, J., et al. (2022). Pickle Juice Intervention for Cirrhotic Cramps Reduction: The PICCLES Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Gastro.. 2022; 117(6): 895-901. Published: June, 2022. DOI: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000001781.
AUDIENCE: Neurology, Pediatric
KEY FINDINGS: Found no support for the concern that maternal SSRI/SNRI use in pregnancy increases children's risk for neonatal seizures or epilepsy.
BACKGROUND: Purpose of this study was to evaluate whether children born to women who use serotonergic antidepressants during pregnancy have higher risk of neonatal seizures and epilepsy.
DETAILS: Swedish register-based data was used to examine associations between maternal reported use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in pregnancy and diagnosis of neonatal seizures or epilepsy in >1.2 million children. To account for systematic differences between exposed and unexposed children, adjusted for a wide range of measured confounders. After first evaluating the role of maternal indication for SSRI/SNRI use (i.e., depression or anxiety) and parental epilepsy, adjusted for remaining parental background factors (e.g., age, comorbidities, education, and family socioeconomic indices) and pregnancy-specific characteristics (e.g., maternal use of other psychotropic medications and tobacco smoking in early pregnancy). Compared with all other children, children of women who reported use of SSRI/SNRI in pregnancy had an elevated risk of neonatal seizures and epilepsy (risk ratio [RR] 1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.94; hazard ratio [HR] 1.21, 95% CI 1.03-1.43, respectively). The estimates of association were attenuated by adjustment for maternal indications for SSRI/SNRI use (RR 1.30, 95% CI 0.94-1.80; HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.33), but not by additional adjustment for parental history of epilepsy. Full adjustment for all measured parental and pregnancy-specific factors resulted in substantial attenuation of the remaining associations (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.79-1.53; HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.81-1.14).
Copyright © American Academy of Neurology. All Rights Reserved.
Source: Wiggs, K. K., Sujan, A. C., Rickert, M. E., et al. (2022). Maternal Serotonergic Antidepressant Use in Pregnancy and Risk of Seizures in Children. Neurology. 2022, 98(23): e2329-e2336. Published: May 6, 2022. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200516.