A Randomized Clinical Trial
AUDIENCE: General Surgery, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: Results of this trial showed that, compared with propofol, etomidate anesthesia did not increase overall major in-hospital morbidity after abdominal surgery in older patients, although it induced transient adrenocortical suppression.
BACKGROUND: Aim of this study is to test the primary hypothesis that etomidate vs propofol for anesthesia does not increase in-hospital morbidity after abdominal surgery in older patients.
DETAILS: This multicenter, parallel-group, noninferiority randomized clinical trial (Etomidate vs Propofol for In-hospital Complications [EPIC]) was conducted between August 15, 2017, and November 20, 2020, at 22 tertiary hospitals in China. Participants were aged 65 to 80 years and were scheduled for elective abdominal surgery. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. Data analysis followed a modified intention-to-treat principle. Primary outcome was a composite of major in-hospital postoperative complications (with a noninferiority margin of 3%). Secondary outcomes included intraoperative hemodynamic measurements; postoperative adrenocortical hormone levels; self-reported postoperative pain, nausea, and vomiting; and mortality at postoperative months 6 and 12. A total of 1944 participants were randomized, of whom 1917 (98.6%) completed the trial. Patients were randomized to the etomidate group (n = 967; mean [SD] age, 70.3 [4.0] years; 578 men [59.8%]) or propofol group (n = 950; mean [SD] age, 70.6 [4.2] years; 533 men [56.1%]). The primary end point occurred in 90 of 967 patients (9.3%) in the etomidate group and 83 of 950 patients (8.7%) in the propofol group, which met the noninferiority criterion (risk difference [RD], 0.6%; 95% CI, -1.6% to 2.7%; P = .66). In the etomidate group, mean (SD) cortisol levels were lower at the end of surgery (4.8 [2.7] µg/dL vs 6.1 [3.4] µg/dL; P < .001), and mean (SD) aldosterone levels were lower at the end of surgery (0.13 [0.05] ng/dL vs 0.15 [0.07] ng/dL; P = .02) and on postoperative day 1 (0.14 [0.04] ng/dL vs 0.16 [0.06] ng/dL; P = .001) compared with the propofol group. No difference in mortality was observed between the etomidate and propofol groups at postoperative month 6 (2.2% vs 3.0%; RD, -0.8%; 95% CI, -2.2% to 0.7%) and 12 (3.3% vs 3.9%; RD, -0.6%; 95% CI, -2.3% to 1.0%). More patients had pneumonia in the etomidate group than in the propofol group (2.0% vs 0.3%; RD, 1.7%; 95% CI, 0.7% to 2.8%; P = .001). Results were consistent in the per-protocol population.
Copyright © Wiley Periodicals LLC. All rights reserved.
Source: Lu, Z., Zheng, H., Chen, Z., et al. (2022). Effect of Etomidate vs Propofol for Total Intravenous Anesthesia on Major Postoperative Complications in Older Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Lasers Surg. Med.. 2022; 157(10): 888-895. Published: October, 2022. DOI: 10.1001/jamasurg.2022.3338.
AUDIENCE: General Surgery, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: Compared to conventional ICS, NMP can significantly reduce the incidence of EAD, RPS, and IC after DCD liver transplantation.
BACKGROUND: In this study, authors sought to assess how liver allografts preserved using portable normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) compare against those that underwent ischemic cold storage (ICS) in the setting of donation after brain death (DBD) and donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation. Compared to conventional ICS, NMP may offer a more homeostatic preservation, permit physiologic assessment of organ function, and provide opportunities for graft improvement/modification. We report a single center US experience of liver NMP.
DETAILS: A single center, retrospective analysis of collected data on 541 adult whole liver transplants from 469 DBD donors (NMP[n=58] vs ICS[n=411]) and 72 DCD donors (NMP[n=52] vs ICS[n=20]) between January 2016 and December 2022. In DBD LT, male gender (OR [95% CI]: 1.83 [1.08-3.09]) and greater than 10% macrosteatosis of the donor liver (1.85 [1.10-3.10]) were statistically significant independent risk factors of early allograft dysfunction (EAD). Donor age >40yo and cold ischemia time (CIT) >7h were independent risk factors of reperfusion syndrome (RPS). 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year incidences of ischemic cholangiopathy (IC) did not differ significantly in DBD cases between the NMP and ICS cohorts. In DCD LT, NMP was an independent protective factor against EAD (0.11 [0.03-0.46]) and RPS (0.04 [0.01-0.25]). Incidence of IC in the DCD cases at 1-year and 3-year timepoints was significantly lower in the NMP cohort (1.9% compared to 20% in the ICS group).
Copyright © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Source: Yamamoto, T., Atthota, S., Agarwal, D., et al. (2023). Impact of Portable Normothermic Machine Perfusion for Liver Transplantation From Adult Deceased Donors. Annals of Surgery . Published: August, 2023. DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000006032.
AUDIENCE: Ob/Gyn, Oncology
KEY FINDINGS: Reflexing samples with intermediate OVA1 scores significantly decreases the false-positive rate, thereby reducing unnecessary surgical referrals.
BACKGROUND: Patients with adnexal masses suspicious for malignancy benefit from referral to oncology specialists during presurgical assessment of the mass. OVA1 is a multivariate assay using a five-biomarker panel which offers high overall and early-stage sensitivity. However, OVA1 has a high false-positive rate for benign masses. Overa, a second-generation multivariate index assay was developed to reduce the false-positive rate. The aim of the present study was to use Overa as a reflex for OVA1 and increase specificity.
DETAILS: OVA1 cut-off scores were established to place patients into three categories: low, intermediate, and high cancer risk. Samples with intermediate-risk OVA1 scores were reflexed to the Overa and defined as high or low risk. This protocol was tested with 1035 prospectively collected serum samples and validated with an independent prospectively collected sample set (N = 207). Thirty-five per cent (359) of samples had intermediate OVA1 scores. Reflexing these to Overa eliminated 58% of the false-positives and improved the overall specificity from 50% to 72%. This finding was confirmed in the independent dataset, in which the specificity increased from 56% to 73%.
Copyright © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved
Source: Fritsche, H. A. and Bullock, R. G. (2023). A Reflex Testing Protocol Using Two Multivariate Index Assays Improves the Risk Assessment for Ovarian Cancer in Patients With an Adnexal Mass. Intl J Gynecol Obstet.. 2023; 162(2): 485-492. Published: August, 2023. DOI: 10.1002/ijgo.14733.
AUDIENCE: General Surgery, Oncology
KEY FINDINGS: Time intervals longer than 12 weeks were associated with improved TRG and systemic recurrence but may increase surgical complexity and minor morbidity.
BACKGROUND: The treatment for extraperitoneal locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) followed by total mesorectal excision (TME). Robust evidence on the optimal time interval between NAT completion and surgery is lacking. Purpose of this study is to assess the association of time interval between NAT completion and TME with short- and long-term outcomes. It was hypothesized that longer intervals increase the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate without increasing perioperative morbidity.
DETAILS: This cohort study included patients with LARC from 6 referral centers who completed NAT and underwent TME between January 2005 and December 2020. The cohort was divided into 3 groups depending on the time interval between NAT completion and surgery: short (<=8 weeks), intermediate (>8 and <=12 weeks), and long (>12 weeks). The median follow-up duration was 33 months. Data analyses were conducted from May 1, 2021, to May 31, 2022. The inverse probability of treatment weighting method was used to homogenize the analysis groups. The primary outcome was pCR. Other histopathologic results, perioperative events, and survival outcomes constituted the secondary outcomes. Among the 1506 patients, 908 were male (60.3%), and the median (IQR) age was 68.8 (59.4-76.5) years. The short-, intermediate-, and long-interval groups included 511 patients (33.9%), 797 patients (52.9%), and 198 patients (13.1%), respectively. The overall pCR was 17.2% (259 of 1506 patients; 95% CI, 15.4%-19.2%). When compared with the intermediate-interval group, no association was observed between time intervals and pCR in short-interval (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-1.01) and long-interval (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.73-1.61) groups. The long-interval group was significantly associated with lower risk of bad response (tumor regression grade [TRG] 2-3; OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24-0.91), systemic recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36-0.96), higher conversion risk (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.62-6.07), minor postoperative complications (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.04-1.97), and incomplete mesorectum (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.02-3.50) when compared with the intermediate-interval group.
Copyright © American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Source: Guzman, Y., Rios, J., Paredes, J., et al. (2023). Time Interval Between the End of Neoadjuvant Therapy and Elective Resection of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer in the CRONOS Study. JAMA Surgery. Published: July, 2023. DOI: 10.1001/jamasurg.2023.2521.
Laser-Assisted Drug Delivery Of Synthetic Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone and L-tyrosine Leads To Increased Pigmentation Area and Expression Of Melanogenesis Genes In A Porcine Hypertrophic Scar Model
AUDIENCE: General Surgery, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: A clinically-relevant FLSR treatment method can be combined with topical delivery of synthetic α-MSH and L-tyrosine to increase the area of pigmentation and expression of melanogenesis genes in hypopigmented HTS. LADD of L-tyrosine alone leads to increased expression of melanogenesis genes. Future studies will aim to optimize drug delivery, timing, and dosing.
BACKGROUND: One symptom of hypertrophic scar (HTS) that can develop after burn injury is dyschromia with hyper- and hypopigmentation. There are limited treatments for these conditions. Previously, we showed there is no expression of alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in hypopigmented scars, and if these melanocytes are treated with synthetic α-MSH in vitro, they respond by repigmenting. The current study tested the same hypothesis in the in vivo environment using laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD).
DETAILS: HTSs were created in red Duroc pigs. At Day 77 (pre), they were treated with CO2 fractional ablative laser (FLSR). Synthetic α-MSH was delivered as a topical solution dissolved in L-tyrosine (n = 6, treated). Control scars received LADD of L-tyrosine only (n = 2, control). Scars were treated and examined weekly through Week 4. Digital images and punch biopsies of hyper, hypo-, and normally pigmented scar and skin were collected. Digital pictures were analyzed with ImageJ by tracing the area of hyperpigmentation. Epidermal sheets were obtained from punch biopsies through dispase separation and RNA was isolated. qRT-PCR was run for melanogenesis-related genes: tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TYRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT). Two-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons and Dunnett's correction compared the groups. The areas of hyperpigmentation were variable before treatment. Therefore, data is represented as fold-change where each scar was normalized to its own pre value. Within the LADD of NDP α-MSH + L-tyrosine group, hyperpigmented areas gradually increased each week, reaching 1.3-fold over pre by Week 4. At each timepoint, area of hyperpigmentation was greater in the treated versus the control (1.04 ± 0.05 vs. 0.89 ± 0.08, 1.21 ± 0.07 vs. 0.98 ± 0.24, 1.21 ± 0.08 vs. 1.04 ± 0.11, 1.28 ± 0.11 vs. 0.94 ± 0.25; fold-change from pre-). Within the treatment group, pretreatment, levels of TYR were decreased -17.76 ± 4.52 below the level of normal skin in hypopigmented scars. After 1 treatment, potentially due to laser fractionation, the levels decreased to -43.49 ± 5.52. After 2, 3, and 4 treatments, there was ever increasing levels of TYR to almost the level of normally pigmented skin (-35.74 ± 15.72, -23.25 ± 6.80, -5.52 ± 2.22 [p < 0.01, Week 4]). This pattern was also observed for TYRP1 (pre = -12.94 ± 1.82, Week 1 = -48.85 ± 13.25 [p < 0.01], Weeks 2, 3, and 4 = -34.45 ± 14.64, -28.19 ± 4.98, -6.93 ± 3.05 [p < 0.01, Week 4]) and DCT (pre = -214.95 ± 89.42, Week 1 = -487.93 ± 126.32 [p < 0.05], Weeks 2, 3, and 4 = -219.06 ± 79.33, -72.91 ± 20.45 [p < 0.001], -76.00 ± 24.26 [p < 0.001]). Similar patterns were observed for scars treated with LADD of L-tyrosine alone without NDP α-MSH. For each gene, in hyperpigmented scar, levels increased at Week 4 of treatment compared to Week 1 (p < 0.01).
Copyright © Wiley Periodicals LLC. All rights reserved.
Source: Carney, B. C., Oliver, M. A., Kurup, S., et al. (2023). Laser-Assisted Drug Delivery Of Synthetic Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone And L-tyrosine Leads To Increased Pigmentation Area And Expression Of Melanogenesis Genes In A Porcine Hypertrophic Scar Model. Lasers Surg. Med.. 2023; 55(5): 490-502. Published: July, 2023. DOI: 10.1002/lsm.23663.
AUDIENCE: Surgery, Internal Medicine, Nephrology
KEY FINDINGS: Using the largest cohort of adult kidney transplant recipients with IDD to date, the study team found that rates of evaluation and transplant were lower despite yielding equivalent outcomes. These data support consideration of adults with IDD for kidney transplant and underscore the urgent need for antidiscrimination initiatives to promote the receipt of equitable care for this population.
BACKGROUND: Improving equity in organ transplant access for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is a topic of social discourse in mainstream media, state legislation, and national legislation. However, few studies have compared evaluation rates, transplant rates, and outcomes among adults with and without IDD. Aim of this study was to compare rates of kidney transplant and transplant-specific outcomes between propensity–score matched groups of adults with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD [also referred to as end-stage renal disease (ESRD)]) with and without co-occurring IDD.
DETAILS: This retrospective cohort study included all Medicare inpatient and outpatient standard analytical files from 2013 through 2020. A total of 1,413,655 adult Medicare beneficiaries with ESKD were identified. Propensity–score matching was used to balance cohorts based on age, sex, race, follow-up duration, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. The matched cohorts consisted of 21,384 adults with ESKD (10,692 of whom had IDD) and 1258 kidney transplant recipients (629 of whom had IDD). Data were analyzed between June 1, 2022, and August 1, 2022. Of the 21,384 propensity–score matched adults with ESKD, the median (IQR) age was 55 (43-65) years, 39.2% were male, 27.4% were Black, 64.1% were White, and 8.5% identified as another race or ethnicity. After propensity score matching within the ESKD cohort, 633 patients with IDD (5.9%) received a kidney transplant compared with 1367 of adults without IDD (12.8%). Adults with IDD were 54% less likely than matched peers without IDD to be evaluated for transplant (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.43-0.50) and 62% less likely to receive a kidney transplant (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.34-0.42). Among matched cohorts of kidney transplant recipients, rates of perioperative complications, readmission, and graft failure were similar for adults with and without IDD.
Copyright © This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2023 Hand BN et al. JAMA Surgery.
Source: Hand, B. N., Hyer, J. M., Schenk, A., et al. (2023). Comparing Kidney Transplant Rates and Outcomes Among Adults With and Without Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. JAMA Surg.. 2023; 158(4): 386-392. Published: April, 2023. DOI: 10.1001/jamasurg.2022.7753.