AUDIENCE: Family Medicine, Cardiology
KEY FINDINGS: Among Swedish women undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography screening, there was a statistically significant association between history of adverse pregnancy outcomes and image-identified coronary artery disease, including among women estimated to be at low cardiovascular disease risk. Further research is needed to understand the clinical importance of these associations.
BACKGROUND: Purpose of this study is to assess associations between history of adverse pregnancy outcomes and coronary artery disease assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography screening.
DETAILS: Cross-sectional study of a population-based cohort of women in Sweden (n = 10,528) with 1 or more deliveries in 1973 or later, ascertained via the Swedish National Medical Birth Register, who subsequently participated in the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study at age 50 to 65 (median, 57.3) years in 2013-2018. Delivery data were prospectively collected. A median 29.6 (IQR, 25.0-34.9) years after first registered delivery, 18.9% of women had a history of adverse pregnancy outcomes, with specific pregnancy histories ranging from 1.4% (gestational diabetes) to 9.5% (preterm delivery). The prevalence of any coronary atherosclerosis in women with a history of any adverse pregnancy outcome was 32.1% (95% CI, 30.0%-34.2%), which was significantly higher (prevalence difference, 3.8% [95% CI, 1.6%-6.1%]; prevalence ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.06-1.22]) compared with reference women. History of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were both significantly associated with higher and similar prevalence of all outcome indexes. For preeclampsia, the highest prevalence difference was observed for any coronary atherosclerosis (prevalence difference, 8.0% [95% CI, 3.7%-12.3%]; prevalence ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.14-1.45]), and the highest prevalence ratio was observed for significant stenosis (prevalence difference, 3.1% [95% CI, 1.1%-5.1%]; prevalence ratio, 2.46 [95% CI, 1.65-3.67]). In adjusted models, odds ratios for preeclampsia ranged from 1.31 (95% CI, 1.07-1.61) for any coronary atherosclerosis to 2.21 (95% CI, 1.42-3.44) for significant stenosis. Similar associations were observed for history of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension among women with low predicted cardiovascular risk.
Copyright © American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Source: Lawesson, S. S., Swahn, E., Pihlsgard, M., et al. (2023). Association Between History of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Coronary Artery Disease Assessed by Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography. JAMA. 2023; 329(5): 393-404. Published: February 7, 2023. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2022.24093.
AUDIENCE: Infectious Disease, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: C. auris case counts have increased for many reasons, including poor general infection prevention and control (IPC) practices in healthcare facilities. Case counts may also have increased because of enhanced efforts to detect cases, including increased colonization screening, a test to see if someone has the fungus somewhere on their body but does not have an infection or symptoms of infection. The timing of this increase and findings from public health investigations suggest C. auris spread may have worsened due to strain on healthcare and public health systems during the COVID-19 pandemic.
BACKGROUND: Candida auris (C. auris), an emerging fungus considered an urgent antimicrobial resistance (AR) threat, spread at an alarming rate in U.S. healthcare facilities in 2020-2021, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published in the Annals of Internal Medicine. Equally concerning was a tripling in 2021 of the number of cases that were resistant to echinocandins, the antifungal medicine most recommended for treatment of C. auris infections. In general, C. auris is not a threat to healthy people. People who are very sick, have invasive medical devices, or have long or frequent stays in healthcare facilities are at increased risk for acquiring C. auris. CDC has deemed C. auris as an urgent AR threat, because it is often resistant to multiple antifungal drugs, spreads easily in healthcare facilities, and can cause severe infections with high death rates.
DETAILS: "The rapid rise and geographic spread of cases is concerning and emphasizes the need for continued surveillance, expanded lab capacity, quicker diagnostic tests, and adherence to proven infection prevention and control," said CDC epidemiologist Dr. Meghan Lyman, lead author of the paper.
As further explained in the article, C. auris has spread in the United States since it was first reported in 2016, with a total of 3,270 clinical cases (in which infection is present) and 7,413 screening cases (in which the fungus is detected but not causing infection) reported through December 31, 2021. Clinical cases have increased each year since 2016, with the most rapid rise occurring during 2020-2021. CDC has continued to see an increase in case counts for 2022. During 2019-2021, 17 states identified their first C. auris case ever. Nationwide, clinical cases rose from 476 in 2019 to 1,471 in 2021. Screening cases tripled from 2020 to 2021, for a total of 4,041. Screening is important to prevent spread by identifying patients carrying the fungus so that infection prevention controls can be used.
The CDC's Antimicrobial Resistance Laboratory Network, which provides nationwide lab capacity to rapidly detect antimicrobial resistance and inform local responses to prevent spread and protect people, provided some of the data for this report. CDC worked to significantly strengthen laboratory capacity, including in state, territorial, and local health departments, through supplemental funding supported by the American Rescue Plan Act. These efforts include increasing susceptibility testing capacity for C. auris from seven Regional Labs to more than 26 labs nationwide.
CDC continues to work with state, local, and territorial health departments and other partners to address this emerging threat to public health. Review more information on C. auris, the Antimicrobial Resistance Threats Report that identified C. auris as an urgent threat in the United States, or the WHO fungal priority pathogen list that identifies C. auris as a priority globally.
Copyright © CDC. All rights reserved.
Source: Increasing Threat of Spread of Antimicrobial-resistant Fungus in Healthcare Facilities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2023; 320. Published: March 20, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2023/p0320-cauris.html.
AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: The use of abdominal vascular, coronary artery, and valvular calcification, along with stress echo, improves the ability to identify and rule out obstructive CAD before OLT compared with stress echo alone.
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common in patients with cirrhosis who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) evaluation and stress echocardiogram (echo) has a low sensitivity in these patients. This study aimed to assess the impact of vascular and valvular calcification on the ability to identify CAD before OLT.
DETAILS: A case-control study of 88 patients with and 97 without obstructive CAD who underwent OLT evaluation. All patients had a preoperative stress echo, abdominal computed tomography, and cardiac catheterization. A series of nested logistic regression models of CAD were fit by adding independent variables of vascular (including coronary) calcification, aortic and mitral valve calcification, age, gender, and history of diabetes mellitus requiring insulin to a baseline model of abnormal stress echo. Compared with stress echo alone, identification of the presence or absence of vascular and valvular calcification on routine preoperative computed tomography and echo improved the diagnostic performance for the detection of CAD based on coronary angiogram when combined with stress echo in patients with cirrhosis who underwent OLT evaluation (area under the curve 0.58 vs 0.73, p <0.001), which is even further improved when age, gender, and history of diabetes mellitus requiring insulin are considered (area under the curve 0.58 vs 0.80, p <0.001). Achieving target heart rate (p = 0.92) or rate–pressure product >25,000 (p = 0.63) did not improve the ability of stress echo to identify CAD.
Copyright © Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Source: Arman, H. E., Ali, S. A., Zenisek, J., et al. (2023). Assessment of Vascular and Valvular Calcification Improves Screening for Coronary Artery Disease Before Liver Transplantation. American Journal of Cardiology. 2023; 191: 23-31. Published: March 15, 2023. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.12.009.
AUDIENCE: Ob/Gyn, Cardiology
KEY FINDINGS: Fetal cardiac and neonatal cerebral hemodynamic/metabolic differences were observed in both TGA groups compared with controls. Compared to those with TGA-IVS, fetuses with TGA-VSD had lower RVO and CVO in late gestation. A higher level of preoperative hypoxemia was observed in the TGA-VSD group. Postsurgical cerebral adaptive mechanisms probably differ between TGA groups. Patients with TGA-VSD have a specific physiology that warrants further study to improve neonatal care and neurodevelopmental outcome.
BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic abnormalities and brain development disorders have been reported previously in fetuses and infants with transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum (TGA-IVS). A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is thought to be an additional risk factor for adverse neurodevelopment, but literature describing this population is sparse. The objectives of this study were to assess fetal cardiac hemodynamics throughout pregnancy, to monitor cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates, and to compare these data between patients with TGA-IVS, those with TGA-VSD and age-matched controls.
DETAILS: Cardiac hemodynamics were assessed in TGA-IVS and TGA-VSD fetuses and compared with healthy controls matched for gestational age (GA) during three periods: <= 22 + 5 weeks (GA1), 27 + 0 to 32 + 5 weeks (GA2) and >= 34 + 5 weeks (GA3). Left (LVO), right (RVO) and combined (CVO) ventricular outputs, ductus arteriosus flow (DAF, sum of ante- and retrograde flow in systole and diastole), diastolic DAF, transpulmonary flow (TPF) and foramen ovale diameter were measured. Aortic (AoF) and main pulmonary artery (MPAF) flows were derived as a percentage of CVO. Fetal middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery (UA) pulsatility indices (PI) were measured and the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) was derived. Bedside optical brain monitoring was used to measure cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBFi), along with peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), in TGA-IVS and TGA-VSD neonates. Using hemoglobin (Hb) concentration measurements, these parameters were used to derive cerebral oxygen delivery and extraction fraction (OEF), as well as an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). These data were acquired in the early preoperative period (within 3 days after birth and following balloon atrial septostomy) and compared with those of age-matched healthy controls, and repeat measurements were collected before discharge when vital signs were stable. LVO was increased in both TGA groups compared with controls throughout pregnancy. Compared with controls, TPF was increased and diastolic DAF was decreased in TGA-IVS fetuses throughout pregnancy, but only during GA1 and GA2 in TGA-VSD fetuses. Compared with controls, DAF was decreased in TGA-IVS fetuses throughout pregnancy and in TGA-VSD fetuses at GA2 and GA3. At GA2, AoF was higher in TGA-IVS and TGA-VSD fetuses than in controls, while MPAF was lower. At GA3, RVO and CVO were higher in the TGA-IVS group than in the TGA-VSD group. In addition, UA-PI was lower at GA2 and CPR higher at GA3 in TGA-VSD fetuses compared with TGA-IVS fetuses. Within 3 days after birth, SpO2 and SO2 were lower in both TGA groups than in controls, while Hb, cerebral OEF and CMRO2i were higher. Preoperative SpO2 was also lower in TGA-VSD neonates than in those with TGA-IVS. From preoperative to predischarge periods, SpO2 and OEF increased in both TGA groups, but CBFi and CMRO2i increased only in the TGA-VSD group. During the predischarge period, SO2 was higher in TGA-IVS than in TGA-VSD neonates, while CBFi was lower.
Copyright © International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. All rights reserve
Source: Charbonneau, L., Chowdhury, R. A., Marandyuk, B., et al. (2023). Fetal Cardiac and Neonatal Cerebral Hemodynamics and Oxygen Metabolism In Transposition Of The Great Arteries. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol.. 2023; 61(3): 346-355. Published: March, 2023. DOI: 10.1002/uog.26146.
AUDIENCE: Neurology, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: Plasma tau, particularly when combined with genetic stratification for AD risk, can be a useful indicator of brain change in midlife. Accelerated inferior parietal cortex changes in midlife may be an important factor to consider as a marker of AD-related brain alterations.
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging and biomarker studies in Alzheimer disease (AD) have shown well-characterized patterns of cortical thinning and altered biomarker concentrations of tau and ß-amyloid (A ß). However, earlier identification of AD has great potential to advance clinical care and determine candidates for drug trials. The extent to which AD risk markers relate to cortical thinning patterns in midlife is unknown. The first objective of this study was to examine cortical thickness change associated with genetic risk for AD among middle-aged military veterans. The second objective was to determine the relationship between plasma tau and A ß and change in brain cortical thickness among veterans stratified by genetic risk for AD.
DETAILS: Participants consisted of post-9/11 veterans (N = 155) who were consecutively enrolled in the Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders prospective longitudinal cohort and were assessed for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic disorder (PTSD). Genome-wide polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for AD were calculated using summary results from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Disease Project. T-tau and A ß40 and A ß42 plasma assays were run using Simoa technology. Whole-brain MRI cortical thickness change estimates were obtained using the longitudinal stream of FreeSurfer. Follow-up moderation analyses examined the AD PRS × plasma interaction on change in cortical thickness in AD-vulnerable regions. Higher AD PRS, signifying greater genetic risk for AD, was associated with accelerated cortical thickness change in a right hemisphere inferior parietal cortex cluster that included the supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus. Higher tau, but not A ß42/40 ratio, was associated with greater cortical thickness change among those with higher AD PRS. Mild TBI and PTSD were not associated with cortical thickness change.
Copyright © American Academy of Neurology. All Rights Reserved.
Source: Hayes, J. P., Pierce, M. E., Brown, E., et al. (2023). Genetic Risk for Alzheimer Disease and Plasma Tau Are Associated With Accelerated Parietal Cortex Thickness Change in Middle-Aged Adults. Neuro Genetics. 2023; 9(1): e200053. Published: February, 2023. DOI: 10.1212/NXG.0000000000200053.
Lessons Learned From A Pilot Ex Vivo Translational Study
AUDIENCE: General Surgery, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: This study showed similar fluorescence of immuno-labeled prostate tissue samples and controls, failing to demonstrate the feasibility of intra-operative margin detection using PSMA immuno-labeling, due to marked tissue autofluorescence. The authors successfully developed a fluorescence device that could be used intraoperatively in a laparoscopic setting. Use of the infrared range as well as newly available antibodies could prove interesting options for future research.
BACKGROUND: Nerve-sparing techniques during radical prostatectomy have been associated with an increased risk of positive surgical margins. The intra-operative detection of residual prostatic tissue could help mitigate this risk. The objectives of the present study were to assess the feasibility of using an anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (anti-PSMA) antibody conjugated with a fluorophore to characterize fresh prostate tissue as prostatic or non-prostatic for intra-operative surgical margin detection.
DETAILS: Fresh prostatic tissue samples were collected from transurethral resections of the prostate (TURP) or prostate biopsies, and either immunolabelled with anti-PSMA antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488 or used as controls. A dedicated, laparoscopy-compliant fluorescence device was developed for real-time fluorescence detection. Confocal microscopy was used as the gold standard for comparison. Spectral unmixing was used to distinguish specific, Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescence from nonspecific autofluorescence. The average peak wavelength of the immuno-labeled TURP samples (n = 4) was 541.7 ± 0.9 nm and of the control samples (n = 4) was 540.8 ± 2.2 nm. Spectral unmixing revealed that these similar measures were explained by significant autofluorescence, linked to electrocautery. Three biopsy samples were then obtained from seven patients and also displayed significant nonspecific fluorescence, raising questions regarding the reproducibility of the fixation of the anti-PSMA antibodies on the samples. Comparing the fluorescence results with final pathology proved challenging due to the small sample size and tissue alterations.
Copyright © Wiley Periodicals LLC. All rights reserved
Source: Fiard, G., Hughes, C., Heus, R., et al. (2023). Intra-Operative Fluorescence-Based Detection Of Positive Surgical Margins During Radical Prostatectomy: Lessons Learned From A Pilot Ex Vivo Translational Study. Lasers Surg. Med.. 2023; 55(2): 226-232. Published: February, 2023. DOI: 10.1002/lsm.23627.