Definition of Syndrome-Specific Reference Ranges.
AUDIENCE: Endocrinology, Pediatric, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: By longitudinally assessing TFT in a wide pediatric DS population, we outlined the syndrome-specific reference nomograms for TSH, FT3, and FT4 and demonstrated a persistent upward shift of TSH compared to non-syndromic children.
BACKGROUND: The lack of syndrome-specific reference ranges for thyroid function tests (TFT) among pediatric patients with Down syndrome (DS) results in an overestimation of the occurrence of hypothyroidism in this population. Aim of this study is to (a) outline the age-dependent distribution of TFT among pediatric patients with DS; (b) describe the intraindividual variability of TFT over time; and (c) assess the role of elevated thyrotropin (TSH) in predicting the future onset of overt hypothyroidism.
DETAILS: In this retrospective, monocentric, observational analysis, authors included 548 patients with DS (0-18 years) longitudinally assessed between 1992 and 2022. Exclusion criteria were abnormal thyroid anatomy, treatments affecting TFT, and positive thyroid autoantibodies. Authors determined the age-dependent distribution of TSH, FT3, and FT4 and outlined the relative nomograms for children with DS. Compared with non-syndromic patients, median TSH levels were statistically greater at any age (P < .001). Median FT3 and FT4 levels were statistically lower than controls (P < .001) only in specific age classes (0-11 for FT3, 11-18 years for FT4). TSH levels showed a remarkable fluctuation over time, with a poor (23%-53%) agreement between the TSH centile classes at 2 sequential assessments. Finally, the 75th centile was the threshold above which TSH values predicted future evolution into overt hypothyroidism with the best statistical accuracy, with a satisfactory negative predictive value (0.91), but poor positive predictive value (0.15).
Copyright © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society. All rights reserved.
Source: Cattoni, A., Molinari, S., Capitoli, G., et al. (2023). Thyroid Function Tests in Children and Adolescents With Trisomy 21: Definition of Syndrome-Specific Reference Ranges. JCEM. 2023; 108(11): 2779-2788. Published: November, 2023. DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgad333.
AUDIENCE: Pediatric, Neurology, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: During TH, cerebral glucose concentration is partly dependent on blood glucose concentration. Further studies to understand brain glucose use and optimal glucose concentrations during hypothermic neuroprotection are needed.
BACKGROUND: Objective of this study is to determine cerebral glucose concentration and its relationship with glucose infusion rate (GIR) and blood glucose concentration in neonatal encephalopathy during therapeutic hypothermia (TH).
DETAILS: This was an observational study in which cerebral glucose during TH was quantified by magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and compared with mean blood glucose at the time of scan. Clinical data (gestational age, birth weight, GIR, sedative use) that could affect glucose use were collected. The severity and pattern of brain injury on MR imaging were scored by a neuroradiologist. Student t test, Pearson correlation, repeated measures ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were performed. Three-hundred-sixty blood glucose values and 402 MR spectra from 54 infants (30 female infants; mean gestational age 38.6 ± 1.9 weeks) were analyzed. In total, 41 infants had normal-mild and 13 had moderate-severe injury. Median GIR and blood glucose during TH were 6.0 mg/kg/min (IQR 5-7) and 90 mg/dL (IQR 80-102), respectively. GIR did not correlate with blood or cerebral glucose. Cerebral glucose was significantly greater during than after TH (65.9 ± 22.9 vs 60.0 ± 25.2 mg/dL, P < .01), and there was a significant correlation between blood glucose and cerebral glucose during TH (basal ganglia: r = 0.42, thalamus: r = 0.42, cortical gray matter: r = 0.39, white matter: r = 0.39, all P < .01). There was no significant difference in cerebral glucose concentration in relation to injury severity or pattern.
Copyright © Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Source: Tetarbe, M., Wisnowski, J. L., Geyer, E., et al. (2023). Cerebral Glucose Concentration in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy during Therapeutic Hypothermia. J Pediatr.. Published: October, 2023. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2023.113560.
An Ontology-Driven Analysis of the Heterogeneity of Multiple Islet Autoimmunity
AUDIENCE: Endocrinology, Pediatric, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: The 15-year risk of progression to type 1 diabetes risk varies markedly from 18 to 88% based on the stringency of mIA definition. While initial categorization identifies highest-risk individuals, short-term follow-up over 2 years may help stratify evolving risk, especially for those with less stringent definitions of mIA.
BACKGROUND: Aim of this study is to estimate the risk of progression to stage 3 type 1 diabetes based on varying definitions of multiple islet autoantibody positivity (mIA).
DETAILS: Type 1 Diabetes Intelligence (T1DI) is a combined prospective data set of children from Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the U.S. who have an increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Analysis included 16,709 infants-toddlers enrolled by age 2.5 years and comparison between groups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Of 865 (5%) children with mIA, 537 (62%) progressed to type 1 diabetes. The 15-year cumulative incidence of diabetes varied from the most stringent definition (mIA/Persistent/2: two or more islet autoantibodies positive at the same visit with two or more antibodies persistent at next visit; 88% [95% CI 85-92%]) to the least stringent (mIA/Any: positivity for two islet autoantibodies without co-occurring positivity or persistence; 18% [5-40%]). Progression in mIA/Persistent/2 was significantly higher than all other groups (P < 0.0001). Intermediate stringency definitions showed intermediate risk and were significantly different than mIA/Any (P < 0.05); however, differences waned over the 2-year follow-up among those who did not subsequently reach higher stringency. Among mIA/Persistent/2 individuals with three autoantibodies, loss of one autoantibody by the 2-year follow-up was associated with accelerated progression. Age was significantly associated with time from seroconversion to mIA/Persistent/2 status and mIA to stage 3 type 1 diabetes.
Copyright © American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved.
Source: Frohnert, B. I., Ghalwash, M., Li, Y., et al. (2023). Refining the Definition of Stage 1 Type 1 Diabetes: An Ontology-Driven Analysis of the Heterogeneity of Multiple Islet Autoimmunity. Diabetes Care . 2023; 46(10): 1753-1761. Published: October, 2023. DOI: 10.2337/dc22-1960.
AUDIENCE: Gastroenterology, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: The research provides evidence that EDGE for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography yields good treatment outcomes in patients with RYGBs. The AE rate is significantly lower with 20-mm versus 15-mm LAMS; thus, the former is likely preferable.
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound-directed trans-gastric retrograde cholangiopancreatography (EDGE) is a new procedure for treating pancreaticobiliary diseases in patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The aim of this meta-;analysis was to determine the overall outcomes and safety of EDGE.
DETAILS: Authors performed a computerized search of the main databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Science Citation Index, through October 2022. The main outcome measures examined in the meta-analysis were technical and clinical success rates and overall adverse event (AE) rate, especially the lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) dislodgement rate. AE rates were assessed according to LAMS size (15 vs. 20 mm), number of stages (single vs. two) and access route (gastrogastric vs. jejuno-gastric). Fourteen trials with a total of 574 patients who had undergone 585 EDGE procedures were included in this study. The cumulative technical and clinical success and AE rates were 98%, 94%, and 14%, respectively. The commonest AE was LAMS dislodgement (rate 4%). The overall AE rate was lower in the 20-mm LAMS than in the 15-mm LAMS group (odds ratio [OR]=5.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.35 to 14.29). There were no significant differences in AE rate between number of stages (OR=1.36; 95% CI: 0.51 to 3.64) or differing access routes (OR=1.03; 95% CI 0.48 to 2.22).
Copyright © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Source: Tong, S., Tianjie, C., Jing, W., et al. (2023). Endoscopic-Directed Trans-Gastric Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Patients With Roux-en-Y gastric Bypasses: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 2023; 57(9): 871-878. Published: September, 2023. DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001864.
AUDIENCE: Endocrinology, Pediatric, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: The research analyses suggest parent DD is a strong predictor of child HbA1c and is another modifiable treatment target for lowering child HbA1c.
BACKGROUND: Diabetes distress (DD) describes the unrelenting emotional and behavioral challenges of living with, and caring for someone living with, type 1 diabetes (T1D). We investigated associations between parent-reported and child-reported DD, T1D device use, and child glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in 157 families of school-age children.
DETAILS: Parents completed the Parent Problem Areas in Diabetes-Child (PPAID-C) and children completed the Problem Areas in Diabetes-Child (PAID-C) to assess for DD levels. Parents also completed a demographic form where they reported current insulin pump or continuous glucose monitor (CGM) use (ie, user/non-user). Authors measured child HbA1c using a valid home kit and central laboratory. We used correlations and linear regression for our analyses. Children were 49% boys and 77.1% non-Hispanic white (child age (mean±SD)=10.2±1.5 years, T1D duration=3.8±2.4 years, HbA1c=7.96±1.62%). Most parents self-identified as mothers (89%) and as married (78%). Parents' mean PPAID-C score was 51.83±16.79 (range: 16-96) and children's mean PAID-C score was 31.59±12.39 (range: 11-66). Higher child HbA1c correlated with non-pump users (r=-0.16, p<0.05), higher PPAID-C scores (r=0.36, p<0.001) and higher PAID-C scores (r=0.24, p<0.001), but there was no association between child HbA1c and CGM use. A regression model predicting child HbA1c based on demographic variables, pump use, and parent-reported and child-reported DD suggested parents' PPAID-C score was the strongest predictor of child HbA1c.
Copyright © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source: Patton, S. R., Kahhan, N., Pierce, J. S., et al. (2023). Parental Diabetes Distress Is A Stronger Predictor Of Child HbA1c Than Diabetes Device Use In School-Age Children With Type 1 Diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care. 2023; 11(5): e003607. Published: September, 2023. DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2023-003607.
AUDIENCE: Oncology, Cardiology
KEY FINDINGS: The present study demonstrates that the use of metformin in patients with cancer is associated with a decreased incidence of HF in the year following anthracycline chemotherapy. The findings are consistent with previous experimental studies and provide impetus to develop further randomized controlled trials investigating the benefits of metformin in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity.
BACKGROUND: The prevention of heart failure (HF) is an important issue in patients treated with anthracyclines. Metformin, widely used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM), protects from anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in animal models. The aim of the study was to test the association of metformin with the occurrence of symptomatic HF in patients with DM receiving anthracyclines.
DETAILS: A total of 561 patients with DM received new anthracycline therapy between 2008 and 2021 in a tertiary care center; propensity score matching was used to compare patients with or without metformin treatment. The primary outcome was new onset symptomatic HF occurring within 1 year of the initiation of anthracyclines. A total of 315 patients (65 ± 11 years of age, 33.7% male) were included. Patients with and without metformin were well matched for age, sex, type of cancer, medications, and cardiovascular risk factors. Six patients treated with metformin and 17 matched patients developed HF within 1 year of anthracycline initiation. The incidence of HF in patients treated with metformin was lower than patients without metformin within 1 year after anthracyclines (cumulative incidence: 3.6% vs 10.5%; P = 0.022; HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.14-0.90; P = 0.029). The use of metformin (HR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00; P = 0.049), was also associated with lower mortality.
Copyright © American College of Cardiology Foundation. All rights reserved.
Source: Onoue, T., Kang, Y., Lefebvre, B., et al. (2023). The Association of Metformin With Heart Failure in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Receiving Anthracycline Chemotherapy. J Am Coll Cardiol CardioOnc. Published: August 29, 2023. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaccao.2023.05.013.