Dapagliflozin Impairs the Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production in T2D Following Oral Glucose

Findings provide novel evidence that the increase in EGP induced by SGLT2i is present during an oral glucose load.

source: Diabetes Care

Summary

[Posted 20/Jun/2022]

AUDIENCE: Endocrinology

KEY FINDINGS: These findings provide novel evidence that the increase in EGP induced by SGLT2i is present during an oral glucose load. The fact that stimulation of EGP occurs despite elevated plasma insulin and glucagon suggests that additional factors must be involved.

BACKGROUND: Purpose of this trial is to examine the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on endogenous glucose production (EGP) in patients with type 2 diabetes after an oral glucose load.

DETAILS: Forty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes received an 8-h [3-3H]-glucose infusion (protocol I) to assess EGP response to: 1) dapagliflozin (DAPA), 10 mg; 2) exenatide (EXE), 5 μg s.c.; 3) DAPA/EXE; and 4) placebo (PCB). After 2 weeks (protocol II), patients were restudied with a 5-h double-tracer (i.v. [3-3H]-glucose and oral [1-14C]-glucose) oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) preceded by PCB, DAPA, EXE, or DAPA/EXE. Protocol I: EGP decreased (P < 0.01) with PCB (2.16 ± 0.15 to 1.57 ± 0.08 mg/kg/min) and EXE (2.13 ± 0.16 to 1.58 ± 0.03) and remained unchanged (P = NS) with DAPA (2.04 ± 0.17 vs. 1.94 ± 0.18) and DAPA/EXE (2.13 ± 0.10 vs. 2.09 ± 0.03). During OGTT, EGP decreased (P < 0.01) with PCB (2.30 ± 0.05 to. 1.45 ± 0.06 mg/kg/min) and EXE (2.53 ± 0.08 to 1.36 ± 0.06); with DAPA (2.20 ± 0.04 vs. 1.71 ± 0.07) and DAPA/EXE (2.48 ± 0.05 vs. 1.64 ± 0.07), the decrease in EGP was attenuated (both P < 0.05). During OGTT, the insulin/glucagon (INS/GCN) ratio increased in PCB (0.26 ± 0.03 vs. 0.71 ± 0.06 μU/mL per pg/mL), whereas in DAPA (0.26 ± 0.02 to 0.50 ± 0.04), the increase was blunted (P < 0.05). In EXE, INS/GCN increased significantly (0.32 ± 0.03 to 1.31 ± 0.08) and was attenuated in DAPA/EXE (0.32 ± 0.03 vs. 0.78 ± 0.08) (P < 0.01).

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Source: Alatrach, M., Agyin, C., Solis-Herrera, C., et al. (2022). Dapagliflozin Impairs the Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production in Type 2 Diabetes Following Oral Glucose. Diabetes Care . 2022; 45(6): 1372-1380. Published: June 6, 2022. DOI: 10.2337/dc21-1798.



SGLT2 Inhibitors and the Risk of AKI

Among older adults with type 2 diabetes, initiation of an SGLT2 inhibitor was associated with a reduced risk of AKI compared with initiation of a DPP-4 inhibitor or a GLP-1RA.

source: Am J Kidney Dis

Summary

SGLT2 Inhibitors and the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

[Posted 30/May/2022]

AUDIENCE: Nephrology, Internal Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: Among older adults with type 2 diabetes, initiation of an SGLT2 inhibitor was associated with a reduced risk of AKI compared with initiation of a DPP-4 inhibitor or a GLP-1RA.

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been found to have many benefits for patients with type 2 diabetes. However, whether SGLT2 inhibitors increase the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. We examined the association of AKI hospitalization with prior initiation of an SGLT2 inhibitor compared with initiation of a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor or a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) among older adults with type 2 diabetes in routine practice.

DETAILS: Older adults aged at least 66 years with type 2 diabetes enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service and who were new users of SGLT2 inhibitor, DPP-4 inhibitor, or GLP-1RA agents in the interval from March 2013 to December 2017. New users of SGLT2 inhibitors were matched at a 1:1 ratio to new users of DPP-4 inhibitors or GLP-1RAs using propensity scores in 2 pairwise comparisons. Cox proportional hazards regression models generated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs in propensity score–matched groups. Totals of 68,130 and 71,477 new users of SGLT2 inhibitors were matched to new users of DPP-4 inhibitors or GLP-1RAs, respectively. Overall, the mean age of study participants was 72 years. The risk of AKI was lower in the SGLT2 inhibitor group than in the DPP-4 inhibitor group (HR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.65-0.76]) or the GLP-1RA group (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.75-0.87]).

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Source: Zhuo, M., Paik, J. M., Wexler, D. J., et al. (2022). SGLT2 Inhibitors and the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes. Am J Kidney Dis. 2022; 79(6): 858-867. Published: June, 2022. DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.09.015.



Offloading Devices For Neuropathic Foot Ulcers In Adult Persons With T1D Or T2D

There is limited evidence from RCTs to suggest that F-TCC has a shorter ulcer healing time compared with RCW among adults with diabetic NPFUs.

source: BMJ DRC

Summary

A Rapid Review With Meta-Analysis And Trial Sequential Analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials

[Posted 13/May/2022]

AUDIENCE: Endocrinology

KEY FINDINGS: There is limited evidence from RCTs to suggest that F-TCC has a shorter ulcer healing time compared with RCW among adults with diabetic NPFUs. Properly designed and conducted RCTs are still required for a stronger evidence base.

BACKGROUND: Healing time for neuropathic planter foot ulcers (NPFUs) in persons with diabetes may be reduced through use of non-removable fiberglass total contact casting (F-TCC) compared with removable cast walkers (RCWs), although the evidence base is still growing.

DETAILS: A rapid review was conducted and systematically searched for, and critically assessed, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the efficacy of F-TCC versus RCW, focusing on the time to ulcer healing in adult persons (18+ years) with NPFUs and type 1 or type 2 diabetes. We meta-analysed the mean differences and associated 95% CIs using an inverse variance, random-effects model. Also conducted a trial sequential analysis (TSA) to assess if the available evidence is up to the required information size for a robust conclusion. Assessed and quantified statistical heterogeneity between the included studies using the I2 statistic. Out of 102 retrieved citations, five RCTs met the eligibility criteria. Participants' inclusion in relation to stage of ulcer was highly variable as was peripheral neuropathy complicating comparisons. F-TCC appeared to present a shorter ulcer healing time (-5.42 days, 95% CI -9.66 days to -1.17 days; I2 9.9%; 5 RCTs; 169 participants) compared with RCW. This finding was supported by the TSA.

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Source: Okoli GN, Rabbani R, Lam OLT, et al. (2022). Offloading Devices For Neuropathic Foot Ulcers In Adult Persons With Type 1 Or Type 2 Diabetes: A Rapid Review With Meta-Analysis And Trial Sequential Analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials. BMJ DRC. 2022; 10(3): e002822. Published: May 12, 2022. DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2022-002822.



Association of Traumatic Brain Injury With the Risk of Developing Chronic Cardiovascular, Endocrine, Neurological, and Psychiatric Disorders

Findings suggest that patients with TBI in all age groups may benefit from a proactive targeted screening program for chronic multisystem diseases, particularly cardiometabolic diseases, after injury.

source: JAMA Netw Open

Summary

[Posted 2/May/2022]

AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: These findings suggest that TBI of any severity was associated with a higher risk of chronic cardiovascular, endocrine, and neurological comorbidities in patients without baseline diagnoses. Medical comorbidities were observed in relatively young patients with TBI. Comorbidities occurring after TBI were associated with higher mortality. These findings suggest the need for a targeted screening program for multisystem diseases after TBI, particularly chronic cardiometabolic diseases.

BACKGROUND: Aim of the study is to assess the incidence of cardiovascular, endocrine, neurological, and psychiatric comorbidities in patients with mild TBI (mTBI) or moderate to severe TBI (msTBI) and analyze associations between post-TBI comorbidities and mortality. Increased risk of neurological and psychiatric conditions after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is well-defined. However, cardiovascular and endocrine comorbidity risk after TBI in individuals without these comorbidities and associations with post-TBI mortality have received little attention.

DETAILS: This prospective longitudinal cohort study used hospital-based patient registry data from a tertiary academic medical center to select patients without any prior clinical comorbidities who experienced TBI from 2000 to 2015. Using the same data registry, individuals without head injuries, the unexposed group, and without target comorbidities were selected and age-, sex-, and race-frequency-matched to TBI subgroups. Patients were followed-up for up to 10 years. Data were analyzed in 2021. Cardiovascular, endocrine, neurologic, and psychiatric conditions were defined based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Associations between TBI and comorbidities, as well as associations between the comorbidities and mortality, were analyzed. A total of 4351 patients with mTBI (median [IQR] age, 45 [29-57] years), 4351 patients with msTBI (median [IQR] age, 47 [30-58] years), and 4351 unexposed individuals (median [IQR] age, 46 [30-58] years) were included in analyses. In each group, 45% of participants were women. mTBI and msTBI were significantly associated with higher risks of cardiovascular, endocrine, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders compared with unexposed individuals. In particular, hypertension risk was increased in both mTBI (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.1-2.9) and msTBI (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 2.0-2.9) groups. Diabetes risk was increased in both mTBI (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7) and msTBI (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6) groups, and risk of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack was also increased in mTBI (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3) and msTBI (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.4-5.3) groups. All comorbidities in the TBI subgroups emerged within a median (IQR) of 3.49 (1.76-5.96) years after injury. Risks for post-TBI comorbidities were also higher in patients aged 18 to 40 years compared with age-matched unexposed individuals: hypertension risk was increased in the mTBI (HR, 5.9; 95% CI, 3.9-9.1) and msTBI (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.5-6.1) groups, while hyperlipidemia (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.4) and diabetes (HR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.1-9.9) were increased in the mTBI group. Individuals with msTBI, compared with unexposed patients, had higher risk of mortality (432 deaths [9.9%] vs 250 deaths [5.7%]; P < .001); postinjury hypertension (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7), coronary artery disease (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.0), and adrenal insufficiency (HR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.8-13.0) were also associated with higher mortality.

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Source: Izzy, S., Chen, P. M., Tahir, Z., et al. (2022). Association of Traumatic Brain Injury With the Risk of Developing Chronic Cardiovascular, Endocrine, Neurological, and Psychiatric Disorders. JAMA Netw Open. 2022; 5(4): e229478. Published: April 1, 2022. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.9478.



Biomarkers During Recovery From AKI and Prediction of Long-term Reductions in Estimated GFR

A panel of plasma biomarkers measured 3 months after discharge from a hospitalization complicated by AKI provides a potential opportunity to identify patients who are at very low risk of incident or worsening CKD.

source: Am J Kidney Dis

Summary

[Posted 29/Apr/2022]

AUDIENCE: Nephrology, Internal Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: A panel of plasma biomarkers measured 3 months after discharge from a hospitalization complicated by AKI provides a potential opportunity to identify patients who are at very low risk of incident or worsening CKD. Further study is required to determine its clinical utility through independent prospective validation.

BACKGROUND: The effects of acute kidney injury (AKI) on long-term kidney function, cardiovascular disease, and mortality are well documented. We aimed to identify biomarkers for the estimation of risk of new or worsening chronic kidney disease (CKD) following AKI.

DETAILS: Associations between biomarkers and kidney disease progression were evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models. Importance of predictor variables was assessed by constructing multiple decision trees, with penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression for variable selection used to produce multivariable models. A total of 500 patients were studied. Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) 1, sTNFR2, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, 3-month eGFR, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio were independently associated with kidney disease progression and were more important than AKI severity or duration. A multivariable model containing sTNFR1, sTNFR2, cystatin C, and eGFR discriminated between those with and without kidney disease progression (area under the curve, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.70-0.83]). Optimizing the cutoff point to maximize utility as a “rule-out” test to identify those at low risk increased the sensitivity of the model to 95% and its negative predictive value to 92%.

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Source: Wilson, M., Packington, R., Sewell, H. (2022). Biomarkers During Recovery From AKI and Prediction of Long-term Reductions in Estimated GFR. Am J Kidney Dis. 2022; 79(5): 646-656. Published: May, 2022. DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.08.017.



Plasma Industrial and Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids and Incident T2D in the EPIC-Potsdam Cohort 

The TFAs' conformation plays an essential role in their relationship to diabetes risk. rTFA subtypes may have opposing relationships to diabetes risk.

source: Diabetes Care

Summary

[Posted 25/Apr/2022]

AUDIENCE: Endocrinology, Cardiology

KEY FINDINGS: The TFAs' conformation plays an essential role in their relationship to diabetes risk. rTFA subtypes may have opposing relationships to diabetes risk. Previous observations for reduced diabetes risk with higher levels of circulating trans-palmitoleic acid are likely due to confounding.

BACKGROUND: Although dietary intake of trans fatty acid (TFA) is a major public health concern because of the associated increase in the risk of cardiovascular events, it remains unclear whether TFAs also influence risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and whether industrial TFAs (iTFAs) and ruminant TFAs (rTFAs) exert the same effect on health.

DETAILS: To investigate the relationship of 7 rTFAs and iTFAs, including 2 conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), plasma phospholipid TFAs were measured in a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort. The analytical sample was a random subsample (n = 1,248) and incident cases of T2D (n = 801) over a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Using multivariable Cox regression models, we examined associations of TFAs with incident T2D. The TFA subtypes were intercorrelated with each other, with other fatty acids, and with different food sources. After controlling for other TFAs, the iTFAs (18:1n-6t, 18:1n-9t, 18:2n-6,9t) were not associated with diabetes risk. Some rTFA subtypes were inversely associated with diabetes risk: vaccenic acid (18:1n-7t; hazard ratio [HR] per SD 0.72; 95% CI 0.58-0.89) and t10c12-CLA (HR per SD 0.81; 95% CI 0.70-0.94), whereas c9t11-CLA was positively associated (HR per SD 1.39; 95% CI 1.19-1.62). Trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t) was not associated with diabetes risk when adjusting for the other TFAs (HR per SD 1.08; 95% CI 0.88-1.31).

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Source: Prada, M., Wittenbecher, C., Eichelmann, F., et al. (2022). Plasma Industrial and Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam Cohort. Diabetes Care. 2022; 45(4):845-853. Published: April, 2022. DOI: 10.2337/dc21-1897.



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