A Rapid Review With Meta-Analysis And Trial Sequential Analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials
KEY FINDINGS: There is limited evidence from RCTs to suggest that F-TCC has a shorter ulcer healing time compared with RCW among adults with diabetic NPFUs. Properly designed and conducted RCTs are still required for a stronger evidence base.
BACKGROUND: Healing time for neuropathic planter foot ulcers (NPFUs) in persons with diabetes may be reduced through use of non-removable fiberglass total contact casting (F-TCC) compared with removable cast walkers (RCWs), although the evidence base is still growing.
DETAILS: A rapid review was conducted and systematically searched for, and critically assessed, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the efficacy of F-TCC versus RCW, focusing on the time to ulcer healing in adult persons (18+ years) with NPFUs and type 1 or type 2 diabetes. We meta-analysed the mean differences and associated 95% CIs using an inverse variance, random-effects model. Also conducted a trial sequential analysis (TSA) to assess if the available evidence is up to the required information size for a robust conclusion. Assessed and quantified statistical heterogeneity between the included studies using the I2 statistic. Out of 102 retrieved citations, five RCTs met the eligibility criteria. Participants' inclusion in relation to stage of ulcer was highly variable as was peripheral neuropathy complicating comparisons. F-TCC appeared to present a shorter ulcer healing time (-5.42 days, 95% CI -9.66 days to -1.17 days; I2 9.9%; 5 RCTs; 169 participants) compared with RCW. This finding was supported by the TSA.
Copyright © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source: Okoli GN, Rabbani R, Lam OLT, et al. (2022). Offloading Devices For Neuropathic Foot Ulcers In Adult Persons With Type 1 Or Type 2 Diabetes: A Rapid Review With Meta-Analysis And Trial Sequential Analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials. BMJ DRC. 2022; 10(3): e002822. Published: May 12, 2022. DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2022-002822.
AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: These findings suggest that TBI of any severity was associated with a higher risk of chronic cardiovascular, endocrine, and neurological comorbidities in patients without baseline diagnoses. Medical comorbidities were observed in relatively young patients with TBI. Comorbidities occurring after TBI were associated with higher mortality. These findings suggest the need for a targeted screening program for multisystem diseases after TBI, particularly chronic cardiometabolic diseases.
BACKGROUND: Aim of the study is to assess the incidence of cardiovascular, endocrine, neurological, and psychiatric comorbidities in patients with mild TBI (mTBI) or moderate to severe TBI (msTBI) and analyze associations between post-TBI comorbidities and mortality. Increased risk of neurological and psychiatric conditions after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is well-defined. However, cardiovascular and endocrine comorbidity risk after TBI in individuals without these comorbidities and associations with post-TBI mortality have received little attention.
DETAILS: This prospective longitudinal cohort study used hospital-based patient registry data from a tertiary academic medical center to select patients without any prior clinical comorbidities who experienced TBI from 2000 to 2015. Using the same data registry, individuals without head injuries, the unexposed group, and without target comorbidities were selected and age-, sex-, and race-frequency-matched to TBI subgroups. Patients were followed-up for up to 10 years. Data were analyzed in 2021. Cardiovascular, endocrine, neurologic, and psychiatric conditions were defined based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Associations between TBI and comorbidities, as well as associations between the comorbidities and mortality, were analyzed. A total of 4351 patients with mTBI (median [IQR] age, 45 [29-57] years), 4351 patients with msTBI (median [IQR] age, 47 [30-58] years), and 4351 unexposed individuals (median [IQR] age, 46 [30-58] years) were included in analyses. In each group, 45% of participants were women. mTBI and msTBI were significantly associated with higher risks of cardiovascular, endocrine, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders compared with unexposed individuals. In particular, hypertension risk was increased in both mTBI (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.1-2.9) and msTBI (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 2.0-2.9) groups. Diabetes risk was increased in both mTBI (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7) and msTBI (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6) groups, and risk of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack was also increased in mTBI (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3) and msTBI (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.4-5.3) groups. All comorbidities in the TBI subgroups emerged within a median (IQR) of 3.49 (1.76-5.96) years after injury. Risks for post-TBI comorbidities were also higher in patients aged 18 to 40 years compared with age-matched unexposed individuals: hypertension risk was increased in the mTBI (HR, 5.9; 95% CI, 3.9-9.1) and msTBI (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.5-6.1) groups, while hyperlipidemia (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.4) and diabetes (HR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.1-9.9) were increased in the mTBI group. Individuals with msTBI, compared with unexposed patients, had higher risk of mortality (432 deaths [9.9%] vs 250 deaths [5.7%]; P < .001); postinjury hypertension (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7), coronary artery disease (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.0), and adrenal insufficiency (HR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.8-13.0) were also associated with higher mortality.
Copyright © American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Source: Izzy, S., Chen, P. M., Tahir, Z., et al. (2022). Association of Traumatic Brain Injury With the Risk of Developing Chronic Cardiovascular, Endocrine, Neurological, and Psychiatric Disorders. JAMA Netw Open. 2022; 5(4): e229478. Published: April 1, 2022. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.9478.
AUDIENCE: Nephrology, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: A panel of plasma biomarkers measured 3 months after discharge from a hospitalization complicated by AKI provides a potential opportunity to identify patients who are at very low risk of incident or worsening CKD. Further study is required to determine its clinical utility through independent prospective validation.
BACKGROUND: The effects of acute kidney injury (AKI) on long-term kidney function, cardiovascular disease, and mortality are well documented. We aimed to identify biomarkers for the estimation of risk of new or worsening chronic kidney disease (CKD) following AKI.
DETAILS: Associations between biomarkers and kidney disease progression were evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models. Importance of predictor variables was assessed by constructing multiple decision trees, with penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression for variable selection used to produce multivariable models. A total of 500 patients were studied. Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) 1, sTNFR2, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, 3-month eGFR, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio were independently associated with kidney disease progression and were more important than AKI severity or duration. A multivariable model containing sTNFR1, sTNFR2, cystatin C, and eGFR discriminated between those with and without kidney disease progression (area under the curve, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.70-0.83]). Optimizing the cutoff point to maximize utility as a “rule-out” test to identify those at low risk increased the sensitivity of the model to 95% and its negative predictive value to 92%.
Copyright © Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source: Wilson, M., Packington, R., Sewell, H. (2022). Biomarkers During Recovery From AKI and Prediction of Long-term Reductions in Estimated GFR. Am J Kidney Dis. 2022; 79(5): 646-656. Published: May, 2022. DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.08.017.
AUDIENCE: Endocrinology, Cardiology
KEY FINDINGS: The TFAs' conformation plays an essential role in their relationship to diabetes risk. rTFA subtypes may have opposing relationships to diabetes risk. Previous observations for reduced diabetes risk with higher levels of circulating trans-palmitoleic acid are likely due to confounding.
BACKGROUND: Although dietary intake of trans fatty acid (TFA) is a major public health concern because of the associated increase in the risk of cardiovascular events, it remains unclear whether TFAs also influence risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and whether industrial TFAs (iTFAs) and ruminant TFAs (rTFAs) exert the same effect on health.
DETAILS: To investigate the relationship of 7 rTFAs and iTFAs, including 2 conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), plasma phospholipid TFAs were measured in a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort. The analytical sample was a random subsample (n = 1,248) and incident cases of T2D (n = 801) over a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Using multivariable Cox regression models, we examined associations of TFAs with incident T2D. The TFA subtypes were intercorrelated with each other, with other fatty acids, and with different food sources. After controlling for other TFAs, the iTFAs (18:1n-6t, 18:1n-9t, 18:2n-6,9t) were not associated with diabetes risk. Some rTFA subtypes were inversely associated with diabetes risk: vaccenic acid (18:1n-7t; hazard ratio [HR] per SD 0.72; 95% CI 0.58-0.89) and t10c12-CLA (HR per SD 0.81; 95% CI 0.70-0.94), whereas c9t11-CLA was positively associated (HR per SD 1.39; 95% CI 1.19-1.62). Trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t) was not associated with diabetes risk when adjusting for the other TFAs (HR per SD 1.08; 95% CI 0.88-1.31).
Copyright © American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved.
Source: Prada, M., Wittenbecher, C., Eichelmann, F., et al. (2022). Plasma Industrial and Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam Cohort. Diabetes Care. 2022; 45(4):845-853. Published: April, 2022. DOI: 10.2337/dc21-1897.
Influence of Placental and Peripheral Malaria Exposure In Fetal Life On Cardiometabolic Traits In Adult Offspring
AUDIENCE: Endocrinology, Pediatric, Ob/Gyn
KEY FINDINGS: Using the state-of-the-art euglycemic clamp technique, we were unable to prove our a priori primary hypothesis of peripheral insulin resistance in young adult offspring of pregnancies affected by malaria. However, the subtle elevations of plasma glucose might represent an early risk marker for later development of type 2 diabetes if combined with aging and a more obesogenic living environment.
BACKGROUND: Fetal malaria exposure may lead to intrauterine growth restriction and increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. We investigated the extent to which fetal peripheral and placental malaria exposure impacts insulin sensitivity and secretion, body composition and cardiometabolic health 20 years after in utero malaria exposure.
DETAILS: During the study, traced 101 men and women in Muheza district, Tanga region whose mothers participated in a malaria chemosuppression during a pregnancy study in 1989-1992. All potential participants were screened for malaria, hepatitis B and HIV to ascertain study eligibility. Seventy-six individuals (44 men, 32 women) were included in this cohort study. The participants underwent a thorough clinical examination including anthropometric measurements, ultrasound scanning for abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, an intravenous glucose tolerance test followed by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and a submaximal exercise test. Offspring exposed to placental malaria during pregnancy had significantly higher 30-minute plasma post-glucose load levels, but no significant difference in peripheral insulin resistance, insulin secretion or other cardiometabolic traits compared with non-exposed individuals.
Copyright © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source: Grunnet, L. G., Bygbjerg, I. C., Mutabingwa, T. K., et al. (2022). Influence of Placental and Peripheral Malaria Exposure In Fetal Life On Cardiometabolic Traits In Adult Offspring. BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care. 2022; 10(2): e002639. Published: April 4, 2022. DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002639.
A South Korean Population-Based Cohort Study
AUDIENCE: Nephrology, Oncology, Internal Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: Patients with cancer, particularly those with multiple myeloma, exhibited an increased risk of KFRT after accounting for the competing risk of death.
BACKGROUND: Reduced kidney function is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, it is unclear if cancer increases the risk of kidney failure with replacement therapy (KFRT). Assessed the risk of KFRT among patients with various types of cancer collectively and with specific types of cancer. A total of 2,473,095 participants with (n = 824,365) or without (n = 1,648,730) cancer registered in the Korean National Health Insurance Service database.
DETAILS: For each patient with cancer, 2 controls matched for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes, and hypertension were included. To address the competing risk of death, a competing risk survival analysis was conducted using the Fine and Gray method. Occurrence of KFRT was higher in patients with cancer than in controls without cancer (incidence rates of 1.07 vs 0.51 cases per 1,000 person-years). Competing risk analysis showed that cancer was significantly associated with an increased risk of KFRT after adjusting for other potential predictors (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.29 [95% CI, 2.20-2.39]). Multiple myeloma, leukemia, lymphoma, and kidney, ovarian, and liver cancer were most significantly associated with an increased KFRT risk, with multiple myeloma conferring the highest risk across age and sex groups. All subgroups of patients with cancer (based on age, sex, smoking, alcohol, exercise, obesity, and comorbid conditions) exhibited a higher risk of KFRT.
Copyright © Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source: Chang, S. K., Bongseong. K., Sang, H. S., et al. (2022). Risk of Kidney Failure in Patients With Cancer: A South Korean Population-Based Cohort Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2022; 79(4): 507-517. Published: April, 2022. DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.06.024.