Survival and Tumor Characteristics Of Patients Presenting With Single Primary Versus Second Primary Melanoma Lesions

Patients with second primary melanomas demonstrated a significant survival advantage and thinner lesions compared with those with single primary melanomas. The reported tumor distributions support the role of full body skin examinations, with attention to the region of initial diagnosis.

source: JAAD

Summary

[Posted 26/May/2023]

AUDIENCE: Dermatology, Oncology

KEY FINDINGS: Patients with second primary melanomas demonstrated a significant survival advantage and thinner lesions compared with those with single primary melanomas. The reported tumor distributions support the role of full body skin examinations, with attention to the region of initial diagnosis.

BACKGROUND: Patients with single primary melanomas have an increased risk of developing subsequent melanomas. Secondary tumors diagnosed within and after 3 months are termed "synchronous" and "asynchronous," respectively. Purpose of the study is to compare tumor distributions and survival characteristics between patients with second primary melanomas and those with single primary melanomas.

DETAILS: Retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from an institutional database from 14,029 patients with a diagnosis of a primary melanoma seen between 1970 and 2004. The synchronous and asynchronous cohorts demonstrated significantly improved survival probabilities compared with the single primary cohort (P = .04 and .002, respectively). Single primary lesions (2.2 ± 2.3 mm) were significantly thicker than the first-identified synchronous (2.0 ± 1.7 mm) and asynchronous (1.7 ± 1.3 mm) lesions. Synchronous lesions were more likely to be anatomically concordant compared with asynchronous lesions (55.7% vs 38.2%, P < .001).

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Source: Sarver, M. M., Rames, J. D., Beasley, G. M., et al. (2023). Survival and Tumor Characteristics Of Patients Presenting With Single Primary Versus Second Primary Melanoma Lesions. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2023; 88(5): 1033-1039. Published: May, 2023. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.04.046.



Effectiveness and Persistence Of Acitretin, Ciclosporin, Fumaric Acid Esters and Methotrexate For Patients With Moderate-To-Severe Psoriasis

The real-world effectiveness and persistence of acitretin, ciclosporin, FAEs and methotrexate were generally low. Previous nonbiologic systemic therapies, male sex, comorbidities and alcohol consumption were risk factors associated with treatment ineffectiveness.

source: British Journal of Dermatology

Summary

A Cohort Study From

[Posted 17/May/2023]

AUDIENCE: Dermatology, Family Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: The real-world effectiveness and persistence of acitretin, ciclosporin, FAEs and methotrexate were generally low. Previous nonbiologic systemic therapies, male sex, comorbidities and alcohol consumption were risk factors associated with treatment ineffectiveness.

BACKGROUND: Real-world data evaluating effectiveness and persistence of systemic therapies for patients with psoriasis are limited. Purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness and persistence of acitretin, ciclosporin, fumaric acid esters (FAEs) and methotrexate in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis.

DETAILS: Data from the British Association of Dermatologists Biologics and Immunomodulators Register (BADBIR), a prospective, multicentre pharmacovigilance register of patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis receiving biologic and/or conventional systemic therapies, were analysed. Eligible patients were >= 16 years of age receiving a first course of acitretin, ciclosporin, FAEs or methotrexate between 2007 and 2021 with >= 6 months' follow-up. Effectiveness was defined as achieving absolute Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (aPASI) <= 2 reported >= 4 weeks after treatment start date until date of cessation. To identify baseline clinical variables associated with treatment effectiveness, we used multivariable logistic regression models estimating the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of achieving aPASI <= 2. To describe drug persistence associated with ineffectiveness, occurrence of adverse events or other reasons for discontinuation, survival estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using a flexible parametric model. Results were obtained using multiple imputed data. In total, 5430 patients were included in the analysis. Overall, 1023 (19%) patients were receiving acitretin, 1401 (26%) patients were on ciclosporin, 347 (6%) patients were on FAEs, and 2659 (49%) patients were receiving methotrexate at registration. The proportion of patients who achieved aPASI <= 2 was lower for those treated with acitretin [n = 118 (21%)] compared with those receiving ciclosporin [n = 233 (34%)], FAEs [n = 43 (29%)] and methotrexate [n = 372 (32%)]. Factors associated with ineffectiveness included prior experience to previous nonbiologic systemic therapies (acitretin) (aOR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42 -0.96), male sex (methotrexate) (aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.46 -0.74), comorbidities (aOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51 -0.97) and alcohol consumption (<= 14 units per week) (ciclosporin) (aOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50 -0.98). Persistence associated with all reasons for discontinuation showed better survival for methotrexate compared with acitretin, ciclosporin and FAEs cohorts at 12 months [survival estimate 46.1 (95% CI 44.0 -48.3), 31.9 (95% CI 29.4 -34.7), 30.0 (95% CI 27.5 -32.4) and 35.0 (95% CI 29.9 -40.9), respectively].

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Source: Alabas, O. A., Mason, K. J., Yiu, Z. Z. N., et al. (2023). Effectiveness and Persistence Of Acitretin, Ciclosporin, Fumaric Acid Esters and Methotrexate For Patients With Moderate-To-Severe Psoriasis: A Cohort Study From BADBIR. British Journal of Dermatology. 2023; 188(5): 618-627. Published: May, 2023. DOI: 10.1093/bjd/ljad004.



Restless Legs Syndrome In Patients With Psoriasis

Presence of RLS was associated with significantly more severe psoriasis, more severe systemic inflammation, lower serum hemoglobin values, worse quality of life, and sleep quality.

source: Int J Dermatol

Summary

Association With Inflammation And Sleep Quality

[Posted 24/Apr/2023]

AUDIENCE: Dermatology, Family Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: Restless legs syndrome was significantly more common in psoriasis patients, and the presence of RLS was associated with significantly more severe psoriasis, more severe systemic inflammation, lower serum hemoglobin values, worse quality of life, and sleep quality.

BACKGROUND: The study was aimed to evaluate if psoriasis associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS) due to its close relationship with metabolic disorders.

DETAILS: This was a cross-sectional study in which the relationship between RLS and psoriasis was evaluated. Seventy consecutive psoriasis patients and 70 controls without any skin disorder were included in this study. Data including age, gender, body weight, height, and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores were recorded. Diagnosis of RLS was established using International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria. International RLS Rating Scale (IRLSRS) was used to evaluate the severity of symptoms. Each participant completed forms of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The RLS frequency in patients with psoriasis was 18.6% vs. 5.7% in the control group (P = 0.018). In psoriasis patients, BMI, DLQI, IRLSRS, hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, and uric acid levels were significantly higher than those of the controls. In psoriasis patients with RLS, PASI, DLQI, PSQI, IRLSRS scores, CRP level, and BMI were significantly higher, and hemoglobin level was significantly lower relative to the psoriasis patients without RLS. PASI score was the sole independent associate of RLS presence in psoriasis patients.

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Copyright © John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

Source: Solak, B., Aydin, B., Yukseka, G., et al. (2023). Restless Legs Syndrome In Patients With Psoriasis: Association With Inflammation And Sleep Quality. Int J Dermatol. 2023; 62(4): 501-507. Published: April, 2023. DOI: 10.1111/ijd.16532.



Increasing Threat of Spread of Antimicrobial-resistant Fungus in Healthcare Facilities

C. auris case counts may also have increased because of enhanced efforts to detect cases, including increased colonization screening, a test to see if someone has the fungus somewhere on their body but does not have an infection or symptoms of infection.

source: CDC

Summary

[Posted 24/Mar/2023]

AUDIENCE: Infectious Disease, Internal Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: C. auris case counts have increased for many reasons, including poor general infection prevention and control (IPC) practices in healthcare facilities. Case counts may also have increased because of enhanced efforts to detect cases, including increased colonization screening, a test to see if someone has the fungus somewhere on their body but does not have an infection or symptoms of infection. The timing of this increase and findings from public health investigations suggest C. auris spread may have worsened due to strain on healthcare and public health systems during the COVID-19 pandemic.

BACKGROUND: Candida auris (C. auris), an emerging fungus considered an urgent antimicrobial resistance (AR) threat, spread at an alarming rate in U.S. healthcare facilities in 2020-2021, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published in the Annals of Internal Medicine. Equally concerning was a tripling in 2021 of the number of cases that were resistant to echinocandins, the antifungal medicine most recommended for treatment of C. auris infections. In general, C. auris is not a threat to healthy people. People who are very sick, have invasive medical devices, or have long or frequent stays in healthcare facilities are at increased risk for acquiring C. auris. CDC has deemed C. auris as an urgent AR threat, because it is often resistant to multiple antifungal drugs, spreads easily in healthcare facilities, and can cause severe infections with high death rates.

DETAILS: "The rapid rise and geographic spread of cases is concerning and emphasizes the need for continued surveillance, expanded lab capacity, quicker diagnostic tests, and adherence to proven infection prevention and control," said CDC epidemiologist Dr. Meghan Lyman, lead author of the paper.

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As further explained in the article, C. auris has spread in the United States since it was first reported in 2016, with a total of 3,270 clinical cases (in which infection is present) and 7,413 screening cases (in which the fungus is detected but not causing infection) reported through December 31, 2021. Clinical cases have increased each year since 2016, with the most rapid rise occurring during 2020-2021. CDC has continued to see an increase in case counts for 2022. During 2019-2021, 17 states identified their first C. auris case ever. Nationwide, clinical cases rose from 476 in 2019 to 1,471 in 2021. Screening cases tripled from 2020 to 2021, for a total of 4,041. Screening is important to prevent spread by identifying patients carrying the fungus so that infection prevention controls can be used.

The CDC's Antimicrobial Resistance Laboratory Network, which provides nationwide lab capacity to rapidly detect antimicrobial resistance and inform local responses to prevent spread and protect people, provided some of the data for this report. CDC worked to significantly strengthen laboratory capacity, including in state, territorial, and local health departments, through supplemental funding supported by the American Rescue Plan Act. These efforts include increasing susceptibility testing capacity for C. auris from seven Regional Labs to more than 26 labs nationwide.

CDC continues to work with state, local, and territorial health departments and other partners to address this emerging threat to public health. Review more information on C. auris, the Antimicrobial Resistance Threats Report that identified C. auris as an urgent threat in the United States, or the WHO fungal priority pathogen list that identifies C. auris as a priority globally.

Copyright © CDC. All rights reserved.

Source: Increasing Threat of Spread of Antimicrobial-resistant Fungus in Healthcare Facilities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2023; 320. Published: March 20, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2023/p0320-cauris.html.



Prognostic Role Of Microsatellites In Melanoma and Implications In The American Joint Committee On Cancer Classification System

Microsatellites were associated with other adverse melanoma prognostic factors. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that they are an independent risk factor for worse OS, MSS, and disease-free survival.

source: JAAD

Summary

A Cohort Study

[Posted 27/Feb/2023]

AUDIENCE: Dermatology, Oncology

KEY FINDINGS: Microsatellites were associated with other adverse melanoma prognostic factors. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that they are an independent risk factor for worse OS, MSS, and disease-free survival. Patients with stage IIIB melanoma with microsatellites had worse OS and MSS, whereas patients with stage IIIC melanoma had worse OS but not MSS.

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on microsatellite survival outcomes in patients with melanoma. Purpose of this study is to evaluate survival outcomes in patients with microsatellites, assess their role within stage III stratification of the American Joint Committee on Cancer classification, and assess the results of sentinel lymph node biopsies in patients with microsatellites.

DETAILS: A retrospective bicenter cohort study from 1998 to 2019 included patients with a diagnosis of invasive cutaneous melanoma. Of a total of 5216 patients, 108 (2.1%) had microsatellites at initial staging. Survival analysis showed that microsatellites were an independent risk factor with decreased overall survival (OS), melanoma-specific survival (MSS), and disease-free survival, with hazard ratios of 1.57, 1.76, and 1.76, respectively. Stratified analysis in patients with stage III melanoma showed a 5-year OS of 35% (95% CI, 17.3%-73.4%) and a MSS of 45% (95% CI, 23.1-87.5) for patients with stage IIIB melanoma with microsatellites.

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Source: Riquelme-Mc Loughlin, C., Sandoval-Clavijo, A., Blnco de Tord, M., et al. (2023). Prognostic Role Of Microsatellites In Melanoma and Implications In The American Joint Committee On Cancer Classification System: A Cohort Study. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2023; 88(2): 338-347. Published: February, 2023. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.10.027.



Evaluation and Characterization of Facial Skin Aging Using Optical Coherence Tomography

The results illustrate a decline in skin density with chronological age. It was illustrated that structural change in the epidermis and dermis does occur,

source: Lasers Surg. Med.

Summary

[Posted 1/Feb/2023]

AUDIENCE: General Surgery, Family Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: OCT is an effective method for evaluating changes in aging skin. The results illustrate a decline in skin density with chronological age. Additionally, it was illustrated that structural change in the epidermis and dermis does occur, however on a microscopic scale, there are no significant differences based on laterality. OCT holds promise as a noninvasive technique for characterization of aging skin. Its utility and application in the clinical management and treatment of aged skin requires further research; however, the technology has potential to personalize therapies based on objective findings.

BACKGROUND: The skin aging exposome encompasses internal and external factors that contribute to clinical signs of facial aging. Aging skin can be characterized by distinctive features such as wrinkles, lentigines, elastosis, and roughness. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of noninvasively measuring skin characteristics. This study aimed to assess bilateral features using OCT to explore temporal skin changes among decades and potential changes in facial skin aging based on laterality.

DETAILS: A total of 97 subjects between 20 and 89 years old with Fitzpatrick skin types I to IV were enrolled. VivoSight, a Multi-Beam OCT system intended to gather topographical and histological images of skin, was used to scan the area inferolateral to the lateral canthus, bilaterally. Investigators compared characteristics of skin roughness, attenuation coefficient and blood flow across age groups and based on laterality to determine any differences. Only data from successful OCT scans were used. Seventy subjects, 10 from each specified decade, had successful bilateral scans and were thus included in the analysis. Chronological aging was characterized by significantly decreased dermal attenuation coefficient with increased age. Skin roughness measurements showed trends of increased roughness with age; however, no statistically significant changes were seen between groups. Qualitative differences amongst scans taken on right and left sides of the face showed no significance regarding roughness, density or blood flow at depths ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 mm.

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Copyright © Wiley Periodicals LLC. All rights reserved.

Source: Vingan, N. R., Parsa, S., Barillas, J., et al. (2023). Evaluation and Characterization of Facial Skin Aging Using Optical Coherence Tomography. Lasers Surg. Med.. 2023; 55(1): 23-24. Published: January, 2023. DOI: 10.1002/lsm.23611.



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