Effect of Empagliflozin on Heart Failure Outcomes After Acute Myocardial Infarction

Empagliflozin reduced the risk of HF in patients with left ventricular dysfunction or congestion after acute myocardial infarction.

source: Circulation

Summary

Insights From the EMPACT-MI Trial

[Posted 21/May/2024]

AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: Empagliflozin reduced the risk of HF in patients with left ventricular dysfunction or congestion after acute myocardial infarction.

BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin reduces the risk of heart failure (HF) events in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, chronic kidney disease, or prevalent HF irrespective of ejection fraction. Whereas the EMPACT-MI trial (Effect of Empagliflozin on Hospitalization for Heart Failure and Mortality in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction) showed that empagliflozin does not reduce the risk of the composite of hospitalization for HF and all-cause death, the effect of empagliflozin on first and recurrent HF events after myocardial infarction is unknown.

DETAILS: EMPACT-MI was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial that randomized 6522 patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction at risk for HF on the basis of newly developed left ventricular ejection fraction of 45% or signs or symptoms of congestion to receive empagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo within 14 days of admission. In prespecified secondary analyses, treatment groups were analyzed for HF outcomes. Over a median follow-up of 17.9 months, the risk for first HF hospitalization and total HF hospitalizations was significantly lower in the empagliflozin compared with the placebo group (118 [3.6%] versus 153 [4.7%] patients with events; hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.60, 0.98]; P=0.031, for first HF hospitalization; 148 versus 207 events; rate ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.51, 0.89]; P=0.006, for total HF hospitalizations). Subgroup analysis showed consistency of empagliflozin benefit across clinically relevant patient subgroups for first and total HF hospitalizations. The need for new use of diuretics, renin-angiotensin modulators, or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists after discharge was less in patients randomized to empagliflozin versus placebo (all P<0.05).

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Source: Hernandez, A. F., Udell, J. A., Jones, W. S., et al. (2024). Effect of Empagliflozin on Heart Failure Outcomes After Acute Myocardial Infarction: Insights From the EMPACT-MI Trial. XXXXX. 2024; 149: 1627-1638. Published: May, 2024. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.124.069217.



Effect of SGLT2 Inhibitors on Heart Failure Outcomes and Cardiovascular Death Across the Cardiometabolic Disease Spectrum

SGLT2 inhibitors reduced heart failure events and cardiovascular death in patients with heart failure, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. These effects were consistent across a wide range of subgroups within these populations. This supports the eligibility of a large population with cardiorenal-metabolic diseases for treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors.

source: The Lancet

Summary

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

[Posted 14/Jul/2024]

AUDIENCE: Endocrinology, Cardiology

KEY FINDINGS: SGLT2 inhibitors reduced heart failure events and cardiovascular death in patients with heart failure, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. These effects were consistent across a wide range of subgroups within these populations. This supports the eligibility of a large population with cardiorenal-metabolic diseases for treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors.

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been studied in patients with heart failure, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and acute myocardial infarction. Individual trials were powered to study composite outcomes in one disease state. We aimed to evaluate the treatment effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on specific clinical endpoints across multiple demographic and disease subgroups.

DETAILS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, authors queried online databases (PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and SCOPUS) up to Feb 10, 2024, for primary and secondary analyses of large trials (n>1000) of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with heart failure, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (including acute myocardial infarction). Outcomes studied included composite of first hospitalisation for heart failure or cardiovascular death, first hospitalisation for heart failure, cardiovascular death, total (first and recurrent) hospitalisation for heart failure, and all-cause mortality. Effect sizes were pooled using random-effects models. Authors included 15 trials (N=100,952). Compared with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of first hospitalisation for heart failure by 29% in patients with heart failure (hazard ratio [HR] 0.71 [95% CI 0.67-0.77]), 28% in patients with type 2 diabetes (0.72 [0.67-0.77]), 32% in patients with chronic kidney disease (0.68 [0.61-0.77]), and 28% in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (0.72 [0.66-0.79]). SGLT2 inhibitors reduced cardiovascular death by 14% in patients with heart failure (HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.79-0.93]), 15% in patients with type 2 diabetes (0.85 [0.79-0.91]), 11% in patients with chronic kidney disease (0.89 [0.82-0.96]), and 13% in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (0.87 [0.78-0.97]). The benefit of SGLT2 inhibitors on both first hospitalisation for heart failure and cardiovascular death was consistent across the majority of the 51 subgroups studied. Notable exceptions included acute myocardial infarction (22% reduction in first hospitalisation for heart failure; no effect on cardiovascular death) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (26% reduction in first hospitalisation for heart failure; no effect on cardiovascular death).

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Source: Usman, M. S., Bhatt, D. L., Hameed, I., et al. (2024). Effect of SGLT2 Inhibitors on Heart Failure Outcomes and Cardiovascular Death Across the Cardiometabolic Disease Spectrum: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The Lancet. 2024; Published: July, 2024. DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(24)00102-5.



MASLD and MASH At the Crossroads of Hepatology Trials and Cardiorenal Metabolic Trials

The challenge is defining the optimal combination of biomarkers, imaging and morbidity/mortality outcomes and ensuring that they are included in future trials while minimizing the burden on patients, trialists and trial sponsors. This paper provides an overview of some of the wide array of CV, liver and kidney measurements that were discussed at the MOSAIC meeting.

source: JIM

Summary

[Posted 12/Jul/2024]

AUDIENCE: Internal Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: The challenge is defining the optimal combination of biomarkers, imaging and morbidity/mortality outcomes and ensuring that they are included in future trials while minimizing the burden on patients, trialists and trial sponsors. This paper provides an overview of some of the wide array of CV, liver and kidney measurements that were discussed at the MOSAIC meeting.

BACKGROUND: Steatotic liver disease (SLD) is a worldwide public health problem, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Patients with SLD are at increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease.

DETAILS: Conversely, patients with cardiometabolic conditions have a high prevalence of SLD. In addition to epidemiological evidence linking many of these conditions, there is evidence of shared pathophysiological processes. In December 2022, a unique multi-stakeholder, multi-specialty meeting, called MOSAIC (Metabolic multi Organ Science Accelerating Innovation in Clinical Trials) was convened to foster collaboration across metabolic, hepatology, nephrology and CV disorders. One of the goals of the meeting was to consider approaches to drug development that would speed regulatory approval of treatments for multiple disorders by combining liver and cardiorenal endpoints within a single study. Non-invasive tests, including biomarkers and imaging, are needed in hepatic and cardiorenal trials. They can be used as trial endpoints, to enrich trial populations, to diagnose and risk stratify patients and to assess treatment efficacy and safety. Although they are used in proof of concept and phase 2 trials, they are often not acceptable for regulatory approval of therapies.

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Copyright © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

Source: Zannad, F., Sanyal, A. J., Butler, J., et al. (2024). MASLD and MASH At the Crossroads of Hepatology Trials and Cardiorenal Metabolic Trials. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2024; 296(1): 24-38. Published: July, 2024. DOI: 10.1111/joim.13793.



Left Main Coronary Artery Calcium and Diabetes Confer Very-High-Risk Equivalence in Coronary Artery Calcium More Than 1,000

Among asymptomatic patients with a CAC of more than 1,000 without a prior index event, diabetes, and severe LM CAC define very high risk ASCVD, identifying individuals who may benefit from more intensive prevention therapies across several domains, including low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol lowering.

source: J Am Coll Cardiol Img

Summary

[Posted 5/Jul/2024]

AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Endocrinology

KEY FINDINGS: Among asymptomatic patients with a CAC of >=1,000 without a prior index event, diabetes, and severe LM CAC define very high risk ASCVD, identifying individuals who may benefit from more intensive prevention therapies across several domains, including low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol lowering.

BACKGROUND: Although a coronary artery calcium (CAC) of >=1,000 is a subclinical atherosclerosis threshold to consider combination lipid-lowering therapy, differentiating very high from high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in this patient population is not well-defined. Among persons with a CAC of >=1,000, the authors sought to identify risk factors equating with very high-risk ASCVD mortality rates.

DETAILS: The authors studied 2,246 asymptomatic patients with a CAC of >=1,000 from the CAC Consortium without a prior ASCVD event. Cox proportional hazards regression modelling was performed for ASCVD mortality during a median follow-up of 11.3 years. Crude ASCVD mortality rates were compared with those reported for secondary prevention trial patients classified as very high risk, defined by >=2 major ASCVD events or 1 major event and >=2 high-risk conditions (1.4 per 100 person-years). The mean age was 66.6 years, 14% were female, and 10% were non-White. The median CAC score was 1,592 and 6% had severe left main (LM) CAC (vessel-specific CAC >=300). Diabetes (HR: 2.04 [95% CI: 1.47-2.83]) and severe LM CAC (HR: 2.32 [95% CI: 1.51-3.55]) were associated with ASCVD mortality. The ASCVD mortality per 100 person-years for all patients was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.7-0.9), although higher rates were observed for diabetes (1.4 [95% CI: 0.8-1.9]), severe LM CAC (1.3 [95% CI: 0.6-2.0]), and both diabetes and severe LM CAC (7.1 [95% CI: 3.4-10.8]).

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Source: Razavi, A. C., Shaw, L. J., Berman, D. S., et al. (2024). Left Main Coronary Artery Calcium and Diabetes Confer Very-High-Risk Equivalence in Coronary Artery Calcium > 1,000. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging. 2024; 17(7): 766-776. Published: July 1, 2024. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2023.12.006.



Pharmacological Treatments in Heart Failure With Mildly Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction

In patients with HF and LVEF more than 40%, the quadruple combination of ARNI, BB, MRA, and SGLT2i provides the largest reduction in the risk of CV death and HHF; driven by the robust effect of the triple combination of ARNI, MRA, and SGLT2i. The benefit was more pronounced in HFmrEF patients.

source: J Am Coll Cardiol HF

Summary

Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

[Posted 8/May/2024]

AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: In patients with HF and LVEF>40%, the quadruple combination of ARNI, BB, MRA, and SGLT2i provides the largest reduction in the risk of CV death and HHF; driven by the robust effect of the triple combination of ARNI, MRA, and SGLT2i. The benefit was more pronounced in HFmrEF patients.

BACKGROUND: Medical treatment for heart failure with preserved ejection (HFpEF) and heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF) has weaker evidence compared with reduced ejection fraction, despite recent trials with an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) and sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is). The authors aimed to estimate the aggregate therapeutic benefit of drugs for HFmrEF and HFpEF.

DETAILS: The authors performed a systematic review of MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and Web of Science for randomized trials including patients with heart failure (HF) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >40%, treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (analyzed together as renin-angiotensin system inhibitors [RASi]), beta-blockers (BBs), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), digoxin, ARNI, and SGLT2i. An additive component network meta-analysis was performed. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular (CV) death and first hospitalization for heart failure (HHF); secondary outcomes were CV death, total HHF, and all-cause mortality. The authors identified 13 studies with a total of 29,875 patients and a mean LVEF of 56.3% ± 8.7%. ARNI, MRA, and SGLT2i separately, but not RASi, BB, or digoxin, reduced the primary composite outcome compared with placebo. The combination of ARNI, BB, MRA, and SGLT2i was the most effective (HR: 0.47 [95% CI: 0.31-0.70]); this was largely explained by the triple combination of ARNI, MRA, and SGLT2i (HR: 0.56 [95% CI 0.43-0.71]). Results were similar for CV death (HR: 0.63 [95% CI 0.43-0.91] for ARNI, MRA, and SGLT2i) or total HHF (HR: 0.49 [95% CI 0.33-0.71] for ARNI, MRA, and SGLT2i) alone. In a subgroup analysis, only SGLT2i had a consistent benefit among all LVEF subgroups, whereas the triple combination had the greatest benefit in HFmrEF, robust benefit in patients with LVEF 50% to 59%, and a statistically marginal benefit in patients with LVEF >=60%.

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Source: Zafeiropoulos, S., Farmakis, I. T., Milioglou, I., et al. (2024). Pharmacological Treatments in Heart Failure With Mildly Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol HF. 2024; 12(4): 616-627. Published: March, 2024. DOI: v.



Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Small Aortic Annulus

In patients with severe aortic stenosis and SAA (women in the majority), there was no evidence of superiority of contemporary TAVR versus SAVR in valve hemodynamic results. After a median follow-up of 2 years, there were no differences in clinical outcomes between groups. These findings suggest that the 2 therapies represent a valid alternative for treating patients with severe aortic stenosis and SAA, and treatment selection should likely be individualized according to baseline characteristics, additional anatomical risk factors, and patient preference.

source: Circulation

Summary

A Randomized Clinical Trial

[Posted 7/Mar/2024]

AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: In patients with severe aortic stenosis and SAA (women in the majority), there was no evidence of superiority of contemporary TAVR versus SAVR in valve hemodynamic results. After a median follow-up of 2 years, there were no differences in clinical outcomes between groups. These findings suggest that the 2 therapies represent a valid alternative for treating patients with severe aortic stenosis and SAA, and treatment selection should likely be individualized according to baseline characteristics, additional anatomical risk factors, and patient preference. However, the results of this study should be interpreted with caution because of the limited sample size leading to an underpowered study, and need to be confirmed in future larger studies.

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment in patients with severe aortic stenosis and small aortic annulus (SAA) remains to be determined. This study aimed to compare the hemodynamic and clinical outcomes between transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with a SAA.

DETAILS: This prospective multicenter international randomized trial was performed in 15 university hospitals. Participants were 151 patients with severe aortic stenosis and SAA (mean diameter <23 mm) randomized (1:1) to TAVR (n=77) versus SAVR (n=74). The primary outcome was impaired valve hemodynamics (ie, severe prosthesis patient mismatch or moderate-severe aortic regurgitation) at 60 days as evaluated by Doppler echocardiography and analyzed in a central echocardiography core laboratory. Clinical events were secondary outcomes. The mean age of the participants was 75.5±5.1 years, with 140 (93%) women, a median Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality of 2.50% (interquartile range, 1.67%-3.28%), and a median annulus diameter of 21.1 mm (interquartile range, 20.4-22.0 mm). There were no differences between groups in the rate of severe prosthesis patient mismatch (TAVR, 4 [5.6%]; SAVR, 7 [10.3%]; P=0.30) and moderate-severe aortic regurgitation (none in both groups). No differences were found between groups in mortality rate (TAVR, 1 [1.3%]; SAVR, 1 [1.4%]; P=1.00) and stroke (TAVR, 0; SAVR, 2 [2.7%]; P=0.24) at 30 days. After a median follow-up of 2 (interquartile range, 1-4) years, there were no differences between groups in mortality rate (TAVR, 7 [9.1%]; SAVR, 6 [8.1%]; P=0.89), stroke (TAVR, 3 [3.9%]; SAVR, 3 [4.1%]; P=0.95), and cardiac hospitalization (TAVR, 15 [19.5%]; SAVR, 15 [20.3%]; P=0.80).

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Source: Rodes-Cabau, J., Ribeiro, H. B., Mohammadi, S., et al. (2024). Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Small Aortic Annulus: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Circulation. 2024; 149(9): 644-655. Published: March, 2024. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.123.067326.



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