Pulmonary Congestion During ESE

B-lines identify the pulmonary congestion phenotype at rest, and more frequently, during ESE in ischemic and heart failure patients.

source: AHA Journal

Summary

Pulmonary Congestion During Exercise Stress Echocardiography in Ischemic and Heart Failure Patients

[Posted 2/Jun/2022]

AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: B-lines identify the pulmonary congestion phenotype at rest, and more frequently, during ESE in ischemic and heart failure patients. Stress B-lines may help to refine risk stratification in these patients.

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound detects pulmonary congestion as B-lines at rest, and more frequently, during exercise stress echocardiography (ESE).

DETAILS: Performed ESE plus lung ultrasound (4-site simplified scan) in 4392 subjects referred for semi-supine bike ESE in 24 certified centers in 9 countries. B-line score ranged from 0 (normal) to 40 (severely abnormal). Five different populations were evaluated: control subjects (n=103); chronic coronary syndromes (n=3701); heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (n=395); heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (n=70); ischemic mitral regurgitation >= moderate at rest (n=123). In a subset of 2478 patients, follow-up information was available. During ESE, B-lines increased in all study groups except controls. Age, hypertension, abnormal ejection fraction, peak wall motion score index, and abnormal heart rate reserve were associated with B-lines in multivariable regression analysis. Stress B lines (hazard ratio, 2.179 [95% CI, 1.015-4.680]; P=0.046) and ejection fraction <50% (hazard ratio, 2.942 [95% CI, 1.268-6.822]; P=0.012) were independent predictors of all-cause death (n=29 after a median follow-up of 29 months).

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Source: Merli, E., Ciampi, Q., Scali, M. C., et al. (2022). Pulmonary Congestion During Exercise Stress Echocardiography in Ischemic and Heart Failure Patients. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging.. 2022; 15(5): e013558. Published: May 17, 2022. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.121.013558.



Prevalence of Left Ventricular Noncompaction in Newborns

The prevalence of LVNC based on neonatal echocardiography was 0.076%. LVNC was associated with lower LV systolic function.

source: Circulation

Summary

[Posted 4/Jul/2022]

AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: The prevalence of LVNC based on neonatal echocardiography was 0.076%. LVNC was associated with lower LV systolic function. The findings in normal newborns support the cutoff NC:C >=2 as an appropriate diagnostic criterion.

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is characterized by excessive trabeculations of the LV and may be associated with reduced systolic function or severe adverse outcomes. Several aspects remain to be elucidated; there is controversy to whether LVNC cardiomyopathy is a distinct cardiomyopathy caused by failure of the spongy fetal myocardium to condense during fetal development or acquired later in life as a morphological trait associated with other types of cardiomyopathy; the prevalence in unselected populations is unknown and the distinction between normal variation and pathology remains to be defined. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of LVNC and the association to LV systolic function in a large, population-based cohort of neonates. In addition, we assessed the normal ratio of noncompact to compact (NC:C) myocardium in 150 healthy neonates.

DETAILS: Echocardiographic data were prospectively collected in the population study Copenhagen Baby Heart Study. The ratio of NC:C was measured in 12 ventricular segments. LVNC was defined as NC:C >=2 in at least one segment. Neonates with LVNC were matched 1:10 to controls on sex, gestational age, and weight and age at the examination day. In total, 25,590 neonates (52% males, median age 11 [interquartile range, 7-15] days) underwent echocardiography. Among 21,133 with satisfactory visualization of ventricular segments, we identified a prevalence of LVNC of 0.076% (95% CI, 0.047-0.123). LV ejection fraction was lower in neonates with LVNC compared with matched controls (median 49.5 versus 59.0%; P&;t;0.0001). In neonates with otherwise healthy hearts, the median NC:C ratio ranged from 0.0 to 0.7 and the 99th percentiles from 1.0 to 1.9 for each of the 12 segments.

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Source: Borresen, M. F., Blixenkrone-Moller, E., Kock, T. O., et al. (2022). Prevalence of Left Ventricular Noncompaction in Newborns. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging. 2022; 15(6). Published: June 21, 2022. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.121.014159.



Apolipoprotein A-IV Concentrations and Clinical Outcomes In A Large CKD Cohort

ApoA-IV appears to be an independent risk marker for reduced all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and heart failure in a large cohort of patients with CKD.

source: JIM

Summary

Results from the GCKD Study.

[Posted 20/May/2022]

AUDIENCE: Internal Medicine, Nephrology

KEY FINDINGS: The data support a link between elevated apoA-IV concentrations and reduced inflammation in moderate CKD. ApoA-IV appears to be an independent risk marker for reduced all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and heart failure in a large cohort of patients with CKD.

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a chronic proinflammatory state and is associated with very high cardiovascular risk. Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) has antiatherogenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties and levels increase significantly during the course of CKD. Study aimed to investigate the association between apoA-IV and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in the German Chronic Kidney Disease study.

DETAILS: This was a prospective cohort study including 5141 Caucasian patients with available apoA-IV measurements and CKD. The majority of the patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-60 ml/min/1.73m2 or an eGFR >60 ml/min/1.73m2 in the presence of overt proteinuria. Median follow-up was 6.5 years. The association of apoA-IV with comorbidities at baseline and endpoints during follow-up was modelled adjusting for major confounders. Mean apoA-IV concentrations of the entire cohort were 28.9 ± 9.8 mg/dl. Patients in the highest apoA-IV quartile had the lowest high-sensitivity C-reactive protein values despite the highest prevalence of diabetes, albuminuria and the lowest eGFR. Each 10 mg/dl higher apoA-IV translated into lower odds of prevalent cardiovascular disease (1289 cases, odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.86, p = 0.0000003). During follow-up, each 10 mg/dl higher apoA-IV was significantly associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality (600 cases, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.89, p = 0.00004), incident major adverse cardiovascular events (506 cases, HR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.99, p = 0.03) and death or hospitalizations due to heart failure (346 cases, HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96, p = 0.01).

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Source: Schwaiger, J. P., Kollerits, B., Steinbrenner, I., et al. (2022). Apolipoprotein A-IV Concentrations And Clinical Outcomes In A Large Chronic Kidney Disease Cohort: Results from the GCKD Study. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2022; 291(5): 622-636. Published: May, 2022. DOI: 10.1111/joim.13437.



Left Atrial Reservoir Strain-Based LVDD

LARS can be used as a simple single or supplemental index to categorize LV diastolic function and predict HF events in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

source: Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging

Summary

Left Atrial Reservoir Strain-Based Left Ventricular Diastolic Function Grading and Incident Heart Failure in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

[Posted 16/May/2022]

AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: LARS can be used as a simple single or supplemental index to categorize LV diastolic function and predict HF events in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

BACKGROUND: The echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is complex and not well-established. We investigated whether the left atrial reservoir strain (LARS) could be used to categorize LVDD and whether this grading is predictive of heart failure (HF) events in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

DETAILS: A total of 414 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (aged 58.3±12.8 years; 65.7% male) were categorized using LARS-defined LVDD (LARS-DD) grades: >=35% (grade 0), >=24% to 35%, >=19% to <24%, and <19% (grade 3). Patients were followed for a median of 6.9 years to assess hospitalization for HF or HF-related death. An increase in LARS-DD grade was associated with worse conventional echocardiographic parameters of LVDD, such as lower e', higher E/e' ratio, greater maximum tricuspid regurgitation velocity, and restrictive mitral inflow pattern. Higher LARS-DD grade was also associated with parameters reflecting increased LV filling pressure, such as greater LV wall thickness, greater extent of fibrosis, obstructive physiology, and decreased LV longitudinal strain. Furthermore, higher LARS-DD grade was associated with worse HF-free survival (log-rank P0.001). Patients with LARS-DD grades 0, 1, 2, and 3 showed 10-year HF-free survival of 100%, 91.6%, 84.1%, and 67.5%, respectively. LARS-DD grade was an independent predictor of HF events after adjusting for clinical and echocardiographic variables (hazard ratio, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.03–2.28], per 1-grade increase). The LARS-DD grade also had incremental prognostic value for incident HF events over the traditional echocardiographic LVDD parameters and grading system. The prognostic value of advanced LARS-DD grade was consistent in sensitivity analyses and various patient subgroups.

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Source: Lee. H. J., Kim, H. K., Rhee, T. M., et al. (2022). Left Atrial Reservoir Strain-Based Left Ventricular Diastolic Function Grading and Incident Heart Failure in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging. 2022; 15(4): e013556. Published: April 19, 2022. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.121.013556.



Association of Traumatic Brain Injury With the Risk of Developing Chronic Cardiovascular, Endocrine, Neurological, and Psychiatric Disorders

Findings suggest that patients with TBI in all age groups may benefit from a proactive targeted screening program for chronic multisystem diseases, particularly cardiometabolic diseases, after injury.

source: JAMA Netw Open

Summary

[Posted 2/May/2022]

AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine

KEY FINDINGS: These findings suggest that TBI of any severity was associated with a higher risk of chronic cardiovascular, endocrine, and neurological comorbidities in patients without baseline diagnoses. Medical comorbidities were observed in relatively young patients with TBI. Comorbidities occurring after TBI were associated with higher mortality. These findings suggest the need for a targeted screening program for multisystem diseases after TBI, particularly chronic cardiometabolic diseases.

BACKGROUND: Aim of the study is to assess the incidence of cardiovascular, endocrine, neurological, and psychiatric comorbidities in patients with mild TBI (mTBI) or moderate to severe TBI (msTBI) and analyze associations between post-TBI comorbidities and mortality. Increased risk of neurological and psychiatric conditions after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is well-defined. However, cardiovascular and endocrine comorbidity risk after TBI in individuals without these comorbidities and associations with post-TBI mortality have received little attention.

DETAILS: This prospective longitudinal cohort study used hospital-based patient registry data from a tertiary academic medical center to select patients without any prior clinical comorbidities who experienced TBI from 2000 to 2015. Using the same data registry, individuals without head injuries, the unexposed group, and without target comorbidities were selected and age-, sex-, and race-frequency-matched to TBI subgroups. Patients were followed-up for up to 10 years. Data were analyzed in 2021. Cardiovascular, endocrine, neurologic, and psychiatric conditions were defined based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Associations between TBI and comorbidities, as well as associations between the comorbidities and mortality, were analyzed. A total of 4351 patients with mTBI (median [IQR] age, 45 [29-57] years), 4351 patients with msTBI (median [IQR] age, 47 [30-58] years), and 4351 unexposed individuals (median [IQR] age, 46 [30-58] years) were included in analyses. In each group, 45% of participants were women. mTBI and msTBI were significantly associated with higher risks of cardiovascular, endocrine, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders compared with unexposed individuals. In particular, hypertension risk was increased in both mTBI (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.1-2.9) and msTBI (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 2.0-2.9) groups. Diabetes risk was increased in both mTBI (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7) and msTBI (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6) groups, and risk of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack was also increased in mTBI (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3) and msTBI (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.4-5.3) groups. All comorbidities in the TBI subgroups emerged within a median (IQR) of 3.49 (1.76-5.96) years after injury. Risks for post-TBI comorbidities were also higher in patients aged 18 to 40 years compared with age-matched unexposed individuals: hypertension risk was increased in the mTBI (HR, 5.9; 95% CI, 3.9-9.1) and msTBI (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.5-6.1) groups, while hyperlipidemia (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.4) and diabetes (HR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.1-9.9) were increased in the mTBI group. Individuals with msTBI, compared with unexposed patients, had higher risk of mortality (432 deaths [9.9%] vs 250 deaths [5.7%]; P < .001); postinjury hypertension (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7), coronary artery disease (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.0), and adrenal insufficiency (HR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.8-13.0) were also associated with higher mortality.

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Source: Izzy, S., Chen, P. M., Tahir, Z., et al. (2022). Association of Traumatic Brain Injury With the Risk of Developing Chronic Cardiovascular, Endocrine, Neurological, and Psychiatric Disorders. JAMA Netw Open. 2022; 5(4): e229478. Published: April 1, 2022. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.9478.



Plasma Industrial and Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids and Incident T2D in the EPIC-Potsdam Cohort 

The TFAs' conformation plays an essential role in their relationship to diabetes risk. rTFA subtypes may have opposing relationships to diabetes risk.

source: Diabetes Care

Summary

[Posted 25/Apr/2022]

AUDIENCE: Endocrinology, Cardiology

KEY FINDINGS: The TFAs' conformation plays an essential role in their relationship to diabetes risk. rTFA subtypes may have opposing relationships to diabetes risk. Previous observations for reduced diabetes risk with higher levels of circulating trans-palmitoleic acid are likely due to confounding.

BACKGROUND: Although dietary intake of trans fatty acid (TFA) is a major public health concern because of the associated increase in the risk of cardiovascular events, it remains unclear whether TFAs also influence risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and whether industrial TFAs (iTFAs) and ruminant TFAs (rTFAs) exert the same effect on health.

DETAILS: To investigate the relationship of 7 rTFAs and iTFAs, including 2 conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), plasma phospholipid TFAs were measured in a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort. The analytical sample was a random subsample (n = 1,248) and incident cases of T2D (n = 801) over a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Using multivariable Cox regression models, we examined associations of TFAs with incident T2D. The TFA subtypes were intercorrelated with each other, with other fatty acids, and with different food sources. After controlling for other TFAs, the iTFAs (18:1n-6t, 18:1n-9t, 18:2n-6,9t) were not associated with diabetes risk. Some rTFA subtypes were inversely associated with diabetes risk: vaccenic acid (18:1n-7t; hazard ratio [HR] per SD 0.72; 95% CI 0.58-0.89) and t10c12-CLA (HR per SD 0.81; 95% CI 0.70-0.94), whereas c9t11-CLA was positively associated (HR per SD 1.39; 95% CI 1.19-1.62). Trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t) was not associated with diabetes risk when adjusting for the other TFAs (HR per SD 1.08; 95% CI 0.88-1.31).

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Source: Prada, M., Wittenbecher, C., Eichelmann, F., et al. (2022). Plasma Industrial and Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam Cohort. Diabetes Care. 2022; 45(4):845-853. Published: April, 2022. DOI: 10.2337/dc21-1897.



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